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Cost of Capital: Paper Writing Sample



Abstract
This research paper discuss the cost of capital and its various components i.e. cots of debt and cost of equity in order to calculate the weighted average cost of capital that is overall required return on the firm financing assets. Moreover, financial mix (debt and equity) is also discussed to know the firm’s financing policies through debt and equity. The rationale of this examine paper is to talk about the cost of capital and its different elements.

Introduction
The cost of capital is possibly the most essential and extensively used idea in theory of finance. A key imminent from finance hypothesis is that, at all, the utilization of capital inflicts an opportunity cost on shareholders, specifically; finances are abstracted from receiving a return on the subsequent best similar risk speculation. As the investors have admittance to financial marketplace opportunities thus the firm’s utilization of investment should be benchmarked beside these investment market choices. The cost of capital better offers this benchmark. The cost of capital term is used in the area of financial investment to convey to the cost of a firm finances i.e. equity and debt. This method is used to assess the fresh projects of a firm because it is the minimum return that stockholders expect for supplying funds for the firm. The rationale of this examine paper is to talk about the cost of capital and its different elements.


Cost of Capital
The cost of capital finds out that how a firm can raise money i.e. through borrowing, issuing a stock or a mix of these two. Cost of capital is a rate of return that a firm would obtain if it invests its financial resources like money somewhere else with related risk. Cost of capital would comprise cost of debt and cost of equity.


Capital structure of a firm can comprises of preferred stocks, ordinary shares, short term and long term loans, bonds and leases etc. These whole fundamentals of capital formation have their individual price and if we include all the costs of each element after adjusting with weight age of each element, the consequential value is called WACC (weighted average cost of capital). WACC is minimum return that a firm earns on all of its existing components of capital structure to satisfy its owners, creditors or others who provide finance for the firm operations. WACC is an important element firms use if the asset plans accessible to them are valuable to take on or not. To calculate the WACC, first firms needs to calculate the individual costs of each element in capital structure. Let discuss them one by one.




THE EU’S SINGLE MARKET; THE IMPACT OF A FAILURE TO HARMONISE TAXES



Introduction:

EU single market operations have been installed in 1985 for the purpose to make movement within European Union countries without technical, physical and tax related barriers. However, the main aim of European Union committee was to stimulate commercial and industrial expansion as by attaining unified market operations in the favor of European countries. Later on, it became a great threat for whole world because developed countries came to this side for giving tough time to whole world. In single market operations; companies may take couple advantage over rest of competitors as EU companies may expand their manufacturing plants around EU countries. For instance, fabric manufacturing companies don’t afford extra expenditure on employees therefore they prefer to open up their manufacturing plants where they can find cheap labor rates. Hence, they open up such setups in where they can find their desired advantage. in single market operations activities used to be interlinked with each other therefore its main purpose is to produce products for community market. On other hand, a holding authority is needed to control all these functions on ground level that is European Union, which is supposed responsible for taking care of community harmonization legislation. They need to ensure health concerning issues covered by manufacturer. Hence, single market operations used to be surveillance by regional authorities as for knowing the convenient and promising features available by company to its valuable customers. (EC regulatory authority (2010).



As far as objectives of single market are concerned, the intentions behind in coalition of market forces are to merged together in order to work freely and unified system against external market forces. European Union member states don’t want to let any other state allow interpenetrating through loopholes therefore a joint action has been taken against dominant market elements. For this particular reason, emergence of euro currency came into experience, which is good sign for all European countries as it protected them from the worries of exchange rates. Single market operations don’t offer tax constraints to companies. Thus, companies can carry their equipment and plants within specified region.

Research objectives:

  1. We want to study EU single market operations
  2. We want to investigate the impact of a failure to harmonize taxes.
  3. We want to investigate the role of EU single market in the context of tax implementation.
  4. We want to study; why problems can this cause





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Structure of the report



The research report will incorporate certain chapters and these the description of these chapters are listed below:


Introduction
This chapter will incorporate the basic marketing terminologies that are related with this research and it would also include the background of the research. In the similar manner it can also be said that this section set up the scene for the dissertation and gives the general context that is used during the whole discussion.


Literature Review
This chapter would focus on the literature analysis that is closely related with Tesco and other small retail outlets operating in United Kingdom. Emphasis is laid on the marketing strategies and terminologies that are closely related with the aspect of marketing. This chapter will incorporate the secondary sources and these secondary sources will give abundant knowledge so that the hypothesis can be accepted or rejected.


Research Methodology
Emphasis is laid on this chapter because this chapter will discuss that what research strategy will be used to carry out the research. This chapter will focus on different areas of research and incorporate the benefits and limitations of the research. In the similar manner the primary research analysis is also incorporated in this research.


Findings and Analysis
This chapter would focuses on the results and the findings of the research. The findings would primarily focus on the secondary and primary sources. In the similar manner it can also be said that empirical findings and results are actually analyzed in this section.
Conclusion and recommendations


This will be the final chapter of the dissertation this section presents the conclusion of the entire thesis and recommendations following references and bibliography, appendix, abbreviations used in this report.





About Small Retailers



For the purposes of this paper a small retailer is defined as a retailer that employs between zero and 10 employees. As per this definition, in London in 2004 there were 34,763 small retailers with a total of 104,154 employees.  Employing this same explanation, in Great Britain (Great Britain) in 2004 there were a total of 243,508 small retailers employing a total of 831,099 employees.  Small retailers make up 87 per cent of all retailers in London and  85 per cent for Great Britain as a whole. London consists of approximately 14 per cent of all small retailers in the whole of Great Britain.

During the years 1998 and 2004 the number of small retailers reduced by 4 per cent (a full amount of a little over 10,000 small retailers) in Great Britain, and by 2.3 per cent (a little more than 800 small retailers) in London. During the same duration of time the number of large retailers (defined as those employing 10 or more employees) heightened by 9.5 per cent in Great Britain, and by 13 per cent in London.  On the other hand, carefulness is required when utilizing such figures to form an opinion on differences in the number of different sized retailers across time. This is due to the fact that the number of small retailers as explained by the number of employees can be distorted by a number of elements. First of all, the number may be increased by a rise in the quantity of new retail business that have sprung up. On second count, the quantity may be reduced by a number of small retail organizations exiting the industry. In addition to these factors the quantity of small retailers may rise if several medium-sized retailers decrease their employees and downsize (and as a result be re-categorized as small retailers). And last of all, the quantity of small retailers may reduce if several small retailers increase in size and turn into medium-sized retail businesses. For this reason, even as there has been a smaller decrease in the quantity of small retailers in London as compared to the UK, over the past few years it is hard to be accurate about the causes for this discrepancy.

As has become obvious from other research on the retail industry, and as the small retailer firms revealed to us during the course of this study, it is hard to acquire data from retailers themselves. For this reason most of the data acquired for this paper ha to be obtained from interviews with small retailer firms, instead of from straightforward responses from small retailers themselves

After a study of the literature and the resulting study, this dissertation then examines a few of the possible steps small retailers might execute in order to alleviate the harmful effects of some of these problems and ends by summarizing the main results of the paper and discusses the suggestions for retailers to take.



My argument is that self-interest concept



Human altruism has got that complication of compassion that is sometimes being confused to have the same meaning as altruism. These words have two different meanings; with compassion meaning an emotion while altruism means action. Even though they are connected a person can act in an altruistic way without necessary sharing the feelings of other people, but a person may feel compassion without doing altruistic action.


Some arguments has been made against altruism calculation theories based on decisions to do some altruistic actions, just to say; for example a person jumping into a river to save some drowning teenager, may not be made based on the calculation of genetic inheritance, but because of emotions and feelings towards doing good. These two words seems to be both having influence in decision making, and the issue of neurological mechanisms playing into these makes it to separate them from each other when evaluating such actions.


There is a relationship between selfishness and altruism and the perceived split between the two false and damaging to the moral integrity. My argument is that self-interest concept can be reinterpreted to include doings which are generally viewed as altruistic or maybe selfness, giving examples to support it. The combination of the two requires definition which is less dualistic but growth oriented than just morality that most people express.
Ditochomy in altruism and selfishness





The Mixed Method Approach



The Mixed Method Approach can be divided into both qualitative and quantitative approaches within one research project. From this perspective, it is clear that the main idea of the approach is to bring together all elements of research. The Mixed Method Approach is also advantageous in that it focuses on the links that exist among the approaches (Buchanan & Bryman, 2009,pp112). It is mainly concerned with how the approaches can be integrated together to gain an advantage. The third advantage is based on concentration of the practical approach to the research problem. Mixed method approach treats the research problem uniquely and specifically, through ensuring a decision is made on methods to be employed. The results of this approach give rise to more practical research findings. From the perspective of social research, it calls for more ways to achieve consistency in social research. For instance in its design, research questions, data collection and analysis (Denscobe, 2007,pp.111).


The Mixed Method Approach improves accuracy of the findings through, utilization of various methods to investigate a simple aspect. It is based on the use of the principles of triangulation. Accuracy in this case is achieved when the researcher tries to compare results from each method. Basing on the principle of triangulation, the researcher can be able to evaluate a particular method, and its impact in research. Mixed approach also forms a basis for designing the data collection instruments such as, the questionnaire and the interview schedule (Ary, Lucy, & Razavieh, 2009,pp.112-114).


Mixed research is deemed the best method when it comes to a detailed form of research. Researchers regard it as a strong and powerful approach. The mean reason is due to multiple methods involved in it. Multiple methods aid in elimination of various problems that may be encountered by the researcher. It also gives various angles to solving a single problem. With use of qualitative method, experiments are done to achieve accuracy. Experiments are backed up with use of measurements scales, responses and closed ended questions. The resulting data together with accurate statistical reports forms a basis of valid decision making. Qualitative method also utilizes available qualitative information such as an interview and field notes. The researcher here is deemed the main source of data collection. This therefore means that, he has to make a valued decision basing on, the data collection tools in use.


The research presents the data through use of reports, quotations and data description. Mixed approach assists the researcher in utilizing the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research methods for the benefit of the research. In this way, the research may be able to maximize on the strengths and minimizes on the weaknesses. This increases the validity of the research as opposed to using a single approach only (Denscobe, 2007,pp.111).


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Discover how to score a high grade on your College Research Papers



College research papers are evaluated on a default standard of judgment from supervisors. Your college research papers are evaluated on the basis of language usage within your writing. Each college research paper is scanned against the grammatical structure of your writing, the use of vocabulary and terminologies in your college research papers and most importantly the literary devices. All the together it is the writing style of your college research papers, which is been given the first priority for analysis.


In order to score a high grade on your college research papers, you should pay special attention on the layout of your college research papers. Always make yourself one thing clear that college research papers are always a formal piece of writing therefore the layout of formal writing has to be followed when writing college research papers.


College research papers demands sophisticated vocabulary and the use of thoughtful words, revealing your intelligence and creativity, will surely ladder up your college research papers grade. But never use words in your college research papers which are not widely used or accepted or does not belong to the worldly words. Write your college research papers in a passive or impersonal tone and avoid using phrases like “I believe” or “I have concluded” as college research papers are always written with a neutral tone. Again college research papers demand the usage of active and passive voice blend and you need to understand the need for the usage of active and passive sense in your college research papers.


College research paper writing requires complex grammatical construction of sentences as college research papers falls under the category of formal writing. Keep varying the length and structure of your sentences in your college research paper and never end up using complex and un-looped sentences as usually students get puzzled in this loop and college research papers looses their significance.


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College Research Papers



College research papers get tedious and a trouble for students due to lack of commitments and that is one of the main reasons most of the college research papers ends un-graded. In order to score a nice grade on your college research paper or to even submit reasonable college research papers, it is most important to manage your college research papers in the best way you can and break your college research papers into parts.


To get started with your college research papers you need to define a topic for your college research papers and you cannot comprise on this selection as this is the foundation of your college research papers. Before finalizing a topic for your college research paper, always make sure that you have adequate or basic knowledge of the topic, to elaborate it in your college research papers. Once the topic for your college research paper has been finalized, you need to proceed with the collection of information concerning the argument of your college research paper so that you can actually submit a decent college research paper. It might seem a little difficult but you will find it the most interesting part of your college research paper. After concluding a topic for your college research paper and gathering all the relevant material, you need to organize your collected data to be incorporated within the college research paper accordingly.


Now comes the most absorbing part of your college research paper. Once you are ready to get started with your college research paper, you need to elaborate each of your of research point. The experts suggests not to leave any argument considering it less appropriate, as your college research paper is based on your research and it is your hard researched material so don’t let it go to vain and intricate it within your college research paper.


Your college research paper is not yet done, you need to proofread and edit the complete college research paper against grammatical, punctuation, plagiarism, structure, typing and formatting errors. The fun part is that it is most difficult to edit or proofread a college research paper which you have written on your own as we usually over look our own mistakes and the same phenomenon crop up in your college research papers.


In the end cite your necessary sources and now your college research paper is ready for submission.



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