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About Small Retailers



For the purposes of this paper a small retailer is defined as a retailer that employs between zero and 10 employees. As per this definition, in London in 2004 there were 34,763 small retailers with a total of 104,154 employees.  Employing this same explanation, in Great Britain (Great Britain) in 2004 there were a total of 243,508 small retailers employing a total of 831,099 employees.  Small retailers make up 87 per cent of all retailers in London and  85 per cent for Great Britain as a whole. London consists of approximately 14 per cent of all small retailers in the whole of Great Britain.

During the years 1998 and 2004 the number of small retailers reduced by 4 per cent (a full amount of a little over 10,000 small retailers) in Great Britain, and by 2.3 per cent (a little more than 800 small retailers) in London. During the same duration of time the number of large retailers (defined as those employing 10 or more employees) heightened by 9.5 per cent in Great Britain, and by 13 per cent in London.  On the other hand, carefulness is required when utilizing such figures to form an opinion on differences in the number of different sized retailers across time. This is due to the fact that the number of small retailers as explained by the number of employees can be distorted by a number of elements. First of all, the number may be increased by a rise in the quantity of new retail business that have sprung up. On second count, the quantity may be reduced by a number of small retail organizations exiting the industry. In addition to these factors the quantity of small retailers may rise if several medium-sized retailers decrease their employees and downsize (and as a result be re-categorized as small retailers). And last of all, the quantity of small retailers may reduce if several small retailers increase in size and turn into medium-sized retail businesses. For this reason, even as there has been a smaller decrease in the quantity of small retailers in London as compared to the UK, over the past few years it is hard to be accurate about the causes for this discrepancy.

As has become obvious from other research on the retail industry, and as the small retailer firms revealed to us during the course of this study, it is hard to acquire data from retailers themselves. For this reason most of the data acquired for this paper ha to be obtained from interviews with small retailer firms, instead of from straightforward responses from small retailers themselves

After a study of the literature and the resulting study, this dissertation then examines a few of the possible steps small retailers might execute in order to alleviate the harmful effects of some of these problems and ends by summarizing the main results of the paper and discusses the suggestions for retailers to take.



Marketing Strategy



Marketing strategy is the process though which organisations use their scarce resources to achieve competitive advantage in an industry through creating opportunities for increased revenues by applying various methods and techniques (Baker 2008). According to Ferrell and Hartline (2007) the strategic planning process involves an in depth analysis of an organisation’s internal and external environment and implementing tools and techniques to gain a competitive advantage within this environment. The strategic planning process is also referred to as a situational analysis where the situation and environment is evaluated and marketing techniques are implemented through a specific marketing strategy. Implementing a marketing strategy is not only important to gain a competitive advantage but also for the long term survival of an organisation especially in the retailing industry. According to Lamb, Hair and McDaniel (2008) implementing a marketing strategy in any type of retailing company are very important and lead to strategic competitive advantage within the retailing industry.


Sethi (2009) described ten methods of improving a marketing strategy in the current environment which include new strategies for new times, segmentation and decision, search for newer markets, emphasis on value and brand portfolio, updating distribution channels, helping the consumer through various techniques, providing state of the art products and services for consumer convenience, applying effective communication techniques, going digital and using various Information Technology tools and techniques and analysing the changing patterns of consumer demands and behaviour.


Types of Marketing Strategies
There are several types of marketing strategy as described by many researchers and practitioners which are based on various concepts and frameworks. According to Christ (2009) the types of marketing strategies applied by companies are market leader, market challenger, market follower, market niche and alliance marketing. Turnbull and Valla (1986) presented five types of marketing strategies which include technical innovative strategy, product adaptation strategy, availability and security strategy, low price strategy and total adaptation or conformity strategy. Companies implement one of these types of marketing strategies or a mix of these strategies to gain competitive advantage within an organisation.




Problems Faced by Small Retailers



Throughout at least the past two decades the market share of large retailers, including Tesco PLC has increased considerably.  This increased size has led to increased buyer clout for large retailers and has consecutively led to large retailers being able to sell their wares at decreased prices as compared to small retailers in several cases. This has led to a type of honourable circle for retailers such as Tesco whereby the economies of enhanced buyer clout can be spent in superior customer services or lower prices which then lead to increase sales and so even more buyer clout and so on an so forth. As long as this progression does not lead to extreme market power, a matter which the national competition authorities would have to take into account, it is expected to be advantageous to consumers by resulting in lower cost goods. Supposing that large retailers are not big enough to employ market power (i.e. to increase prices without dread of corrective proceedings from competitors) then putting a ceiling on the increase and growth of large retailers, in order to amplify the number of small retailers will lead to increased prices to consumers (as the capacity for retailers to take advantage of increased buyer clout will be restricted).

Limiting the development and progress of large retailers, because of its impact on restricting cost reductions, might also lead to restraining the number of regions in which retailers work. This means that reducing the expenses of operation is apt to imply that regions which until that time were not economically feasible become more feasible and so competitors enter into the region. Limiting the expansion and development of retailers such as Tesco is apt to decrease economies of scale and, as a consequence, may restrict the number of regions retailers operate in.

These consequences are motivated mainly by the buying clout enjoyed by large retailers. Independently, small retailers are unable to attain any considerable buyer clout. On the other hand, to the degree that they create buying faction, small retailers may be able to tackle some of the competitive return of large retailers with respect to buyer clout and so likewise tackle some of the consequences outlined above.

The latest attempt by retailers, principally Tesco, to set up small format outlets in high street sites along with increased operating hours has resulted in smaller retailers lose a great deal of their earlier unique selling point of handiness (when it came to site and operating hours). Similarly as the case with the increase in buyer clout, these adjustments are the consequence of market forces and imply that no public policy interference is needed on the pretext of economic efficiency (except that believed to be necessary by national competition authorities to tackle any competition problems that may result as a consequence of these changes).

While the expenses of setting up shop in London, as weighed against the remainder of the country are greater for all retailers, there are some expenses that influence specifically on small retailers. The expense of retail felony seems to impact more heavily on small retailers as measured up to large retailers. Into the bargain, the expenses of acting in accordance with government laws, such as the Disability Discrimination Act, fall unreasonably on small retailers. Local Authorities and other organizations such as chambers of commerce or trade associations, could offer backing and/or counsel to small retailers on observance of rules in order to decrease the expenses of putting into practice legislation.

The ease of access of retailers to customers is a problem for all retailers in UK, nevertheless a few of the problems of availability influence more severely small retailers than Tesco. This is due to the fact that Tesco operates on a scale that allows it to extend the expense of interference to customer availability over a higher level of sales (typically in a larger number of outlets) in contrast to small retailers. For this reason it is critical that the effect on small retailers of possible changes to means of transportation is taken into account by the authorities concerned.

Whereas several of these elements, along with elements such as the problem of ancestry, have led to a number of small retailers shutting shop, there are methods by which small retailers can compete more efficiently with Tesco. These consist of heightened specialisation and competing on the basis of customer service among other factors



Coroner



He is autonomous official, whose job is to secure local areas with the funds of local authorities. In some areas of world, coroners are not appointed. Their work is done by procurator fiscals. Section 8 of the coroner’s act 1988 clearly defines the role of a coroner. Eventually, coroner has legal authorization in its hands whether to seal lips on any death or to issue warrant for suspects. He is supposed to undertake these methods in the cases if unnatural death is noticed, unknown sudden death, and death happened in incarceration. Coroner have to, however, be responsible in the identification of decreased individual. Coroner could advice police department to remove decreased body to cold houses. In addition, coroner is also supposed obligator to look after for toxicology and odontology. Coroners have responsibility on their shoulders to train individual in the context of DVI. (Cabinet office (2011)


At Thailand, coroner has to do same important functions as defined under international laws. Coroner has legal authorization in its hands whether to seal lips on any death or to issue warrant for suspects. He is supposed to undertake these methods in the cases if unnatural death is noticed, unknown sudden death, and death happened in incarceration. Coroner have to, however, be responsible in the identification of decreased individual. Coroner could advice police department to remove decreased body to cold houses. In emergency situations, coroner is supposed responsible in the provision of evidences regarding body. For instance, Bangkok flood water took many thousands lives, and coroners never acknowledge anybody’s death until unless he receives significant proves of death. In case if some dies out station even in such conditions coroner would be felt responsible for body under legal jurisdiction. * Civil contingencies act (contingency planning) regulation (2005)


In Yugoslavia, coroner has same functions as in Thailand. NATO bombardment severely disturb to coroner working. Eventually, he couldn’t completely perform some its functions. In war situation, departmental working is totally affected. Thousands of people were brutally killed in such toxic bombardment of air jets, where millions have been displaced in response to warfare activity. World health organization reported it to be looming with continuous respiratory and pneumonia problems. World health organization teams seriously raise their concerns regarding the safety of masses, where clinics were completely destroyed. People didn’t have food to eat and place to live. Hereby, survivors of bombing had urgency of getting appropriate food and clinical services. The author of study would not categorize this 10 week bombing into close category. Nobody knows the exact number count of people decreased in mean while of bombardment.




Research Methodology



This area outlines explanations as to the data sources, data types and the statistical analysis employed to investigate the aims and objectives of the investigation. Harrad et al (2008) emphasise that various methods of research do exist and one should chose methods consistent with their research. The method to be used in this research is conducting interviews by the gang members and the youth workers. The choice of method has been reached because this allows easy reach of serious respondents, fairy easy to administer and not much pressure is exerted on respondents. The downside to this method might be that there is no guarantee if answers might be biased and observations might be easily being misinterpreted.


Interviews
Interviews tend to be used for descriptive or exploratory research. Descriptive research, such as that undertaken using attitude and opinion interviews.
Respondents have been warned that anyone wishing to withdraw from the study can do so before interview starts. Once the interviews starts then respondents can not withdraw from the research .The respondents have been assured that their information will be discarded as soon as data analysis is completed. Those who wish to know the results of the study have been directed to the relevant supervisor as soon as the results are known.


Observations and Surveys
Surveys and observations will supplement the information to be derived from the interviews. The researcher is familiar with how the systerm works but the survey and observations have been necessary just to make sure the researcher has first hand information about work operations and authenticity of the data.


Variables
The need to be clear about the relationships which are likely to exist between variables. A dependent variable changes in response to changes in other variables. An independent variable causes changes in a dependent variable. An extraneous variable might also cause changes in a dependent variable. Rating have been used on the questionnaires and this ordinal data allows (Harrad et al, 2008) some sort of comparison between datasets. The research questions have taken the likert-scale format system probing either opinions or behaviour in respondents.


Statistical Analysis
Descriptive statistics such as mean, median, mode and standard deviation have been used to identify pattern and variations in the distribution of the data. Harrad et al (2008) reiterates that probably the most important assumption is whether the data are normally distributed or not. Once the nature of the distribution has been determined, we can make a decision as to whether parametric tests or non-parametric test can be used.


Research Timetable
Milestone Target Date Description
Pilot study 1 week Includes administration of interview
Research data collection 1-2 weeks depending on sample size Follow up of interview
Data Analysis 2 weeks Data analysis and drawing conclusions for research.
Write ups 3 weeks Writing up dissertation


Resources
Time for this research work has been split between exam study in the evening and research time during the day. The research does not have any costs as envelopes and printing material have been provided. The researchers have used public transport to visit the malls and take opinions from consumers around. Online questionnaires have also been distributed which again have no cost associated to it. There has been no cost of the research since all resources are obtainable online too.




Understanding ethics Concept of ethics



Philosophical developments advanced by think tanks in different fields, has led to human civilization. Medicine, politics, economics, ethics, government, military, business, entrepreneurship, arts and sports, among others, have underestimated the dexterity and prolificacy of philosophers. Philosophers ethics for instance, has been shaped by philosophers such as Aristotle, Emmanuel Kant and John Locke have revolutionized all these particular fields. As a branch of philosophy, ethics is a moral philosophy that addresses the questions concerning morality, goodness or badness of a conduct by an individual or community


Aristotle


He existed between 384 BC and 322 BC; he advocated that ethics be seen as a self realization. To Aristotle, the lucidity of ethics is based on the fact that if an individual acts in accordance with his nature and to the realization of his full potential, he will be contented. Aristotle visualizes ethics as the key contributor to the realization of individual’s full potential. He postulates that at birth, the child is not a person, but the potential to become a person. In order to becomes a real person, that child’s intrinsic potential must be realized. Aristotle mentions that the application of ethics makes the society acts in accordance with nature so as to nurture the child’s latent talents so that he may be complete and contented (Bakewell) .


According to Aristotle the absence of this ethical observation by the parents or the society may lead to frustration and unhappiness. This frustration emanates from the potential that is never realized of a person. Aristotle asserts that this will eventually lead to poor. Ethics is also the most primeval factor in the realization of a happy society since it allows for self actualization, while happiness in itself is seen as the ultimate goal of human existence. To give emphasis to his point, Aristotle maintains that socio-political constructs such as wealth and civic life are the only means to the end, and therefore being ancillary to ethics and the happiness. He advocates that proper ethics must ensure that there is room for awareness of one’s nature, and the subsequent nurturing of one’s talents since they are essential ingredients of happiness according to Aristotle (Barnes) .





The Mixed Method Approach



The Mixed Method Approach can be divided into both qualitative and quantitative approaches within one research project. From this perspective, it is clear that the main idea of the approach is to bring together all elements of research. The Mixed Method Approach is also advantageous in that it focuses on the links that exist among the approaches (Buchanan & Bryman, 2009,pp112). It is mainly concerned with how the approaches can be integrated together to gain an advantage. The third advantage is based on concentration of the practical approach to the research problem. Mixed method approach treats the research problem uniquely and specifically, through ensuring a decision is made on methods to be employed. The results of this approach give rise to more practical research findings. From the perspective of social research, it calls for more ways to achieve consistency in social research. For instance in its design, research questions, data collection and analysis (Denscobe, 2007,pp.111).


The Mixed Method Approach improves accuracy of the findings through, utilization of various methods to investigate a simple aspect. It is based on the use of the principles of triangulation. Accuracy in this case is achieved when the researcher tries to compare results from each method. Basing on the principle of triangulation, the researcher can be able to evaluate a particular method, and its impact in research. Mixed approach also forms a basis for designing the data collection instruments such as, the questionnaire and the interview schedule (Ary, Lucy, & Razavieh, 2009,pp.112-114).


Mixed research is deemed the best method when it comes to a detailed form of research. Researchers regard it as a strong and powerful approach. The mean reason is due to multiple methods involved in it. Multiple methods aid in elimination of various problems that may be encountered by the researcher. It also gives various angles to solving a single problem. With use of qualitative method, experiments are done to achieve accuracy. Experiments are backed up with use of measurements scales, responses and closed ended questions. The resulting data together with accurate statistical reports forms a basis of valid decision making. Qualitative method also utilizes available qualitative information such as an interview and field notes. The researcher here is deemed the main source of data collection. This therefore means that, he has to make a valued decision basing on, the data collection tools in use.


The research presents the data through use of reports, quotations and data description. Mixed approach assists the researcher in utilizing the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research methods for the benefit of the research. In this way, the research may be able to maximize on the strengths and minimizes on the weaknesses. This increases the validity of the research as opposed to using a single approach only (Denscobe, 2007,pp.111).


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Discover how to score a high grade on your College Research Papers



College research papers are evaluated on a default standard of judgment from supervisors. Your college research papers are evaluated on the basis of language usage within your writing. Each college research paper is scanned against the grammatical structure of your writing, the use of vocabulary and terminologies in your college research papers and most importantly the literary devices. All the together it is the writing style of your college research papers, which is been given the first priority for analysis.


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College Research Papers



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