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Cost of Equity: Paper Writing Samples



In financial hypothesis, the return that stockholders want for a firm/company is known as cost of equity. The basic formula to calculate the cost of equity is based on dividend capitalization model that is:

A firm’s cost of equity characterizes the return that the market necessitates in trade for owning the assets and bearing the risk of possession. Two methods can be used to find out the cost of equity. Two widely used methods to determine the cost of equity is Dividend growth model and security market line approach.

Cost of Debt
Debt elements of capital might include numerous line items i.e. loans from numerous financial organizations with different terms and costs and preferred stock. Some of the loans might have floating or fixed interest rate. The more other components of debt are bonds and leases. The efficient rate that a firm disburses on its present debt can be determined prior to or after the tax returns as the interest cost is deductible. A firm uses numerous loans, bonds and other kinds of debt so this measure is helpful for providing an idea as to the largely rate being salaried by the firm to utilize the debt money. This measure or technique can also enrich the investor with the idea about the risk ness of the firm as related to others as the riskier firms have higher cost of debt.

To calculate the cost of debt, first the firms needs to calculate the individual cost of each element of debt than calculate the weighted average cost of capital. For example, if there are seven bonds issues than 1st, we will calculate the cost of each individual bond than will move towards calculating the weighted average cost of capital to find the overall cost of debt.


Weighted Average Cost of Capital
WACC is the rate that a firm anticipated to pay on standard to all of its shareholders to finance their assets. A firm’s resources are funded by the use of debt or equity and the WACC is the average cost of these two resources of funding, each one is weighted by its individual utilization. By calculating the WACC, a firm can evaluate that how much interest the firm has to compensate for each dollar it finance.

As a whole, WACC is overall required return on the firm and it is also exercised inside the firm to decide the financial viability of expansionary openings and amalgamations. The general formula for calculating the WACC is:


CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model)
The resources returns depends on the sum compensated for the asset at present. The cost paid should guarantee that the market collection risk and return distinctiveness progress when the asset is putted to it. The CAPM (Capital asset pricing model) is a model which forces the hypothetical compulsory return for an asset in marketplace, specified the risk free rate presented to the shareholders and the risk of marketplace as a total. The general formula to calculate the CAPM is:

CAPM is also a desired model that is used to compute the cost of equity.



Firm’s financial mix
Investment choices depend upon the cost of capital. Capital is collected to grant money services that are key input for the productive process. Capital for a firm comprises of reasonable ratio of debt and equity which is also called financial mix.

Financial mix is a name used in the business world to describe a combination of debt to equity in a firm. This term is use to explain the formula that describes how much investment is being lifted by the debt and how a lot is being lifted by the equity. Financial firms believe that financial mix have an important impact on rising or lessening the worth of a firm. Debt financing is basically a money advance of cash that must have to be pay back, usually with an interest form on crest and equity, on the other side, is financing policy that is obtained from shareholders of the firm and does not essentially have to be paid back, though shareholders will usually be expecting a level of required return for their assets.

Conclusion
The cost of capital has strapping consequences for the firms that makes investments and it can be manipulated by the financial resources. This research paper discusses the cost of capital and its various components to find out weighted average cost of capital of a firm. The sum of all components of cost of capital like cost of debt and cost of equity brings WACC of the firm that is overall required rate of return on firm’s financial assets. Financial mix describes the ratio of debt to equity of a firm and has significant impacts on the overall worth of the firm.

References


Ross, A Stephen. (1977). The Capital asset pricing model (CAPM), Short sale restrictions and related issues, Journal of Finance, 32 (177)


Pastor, L. & Stambaugh, R. F. (1999). Costs of Equity Capital and Model Mispricing: American Finance Association. Journal of Finance, 54(1), 67-121.


Fama, E. F. & French, K.R. (1999). The Corporate cost of capital and the return on corporate investment: American Finance Association. Journal of Finance, 54(6), 1939-1967.


Van Horne & Wachowicz. (2004). Fundamentals of financial management. New York: Prentice Hall Publishers.


Richard, Brealey & Stewart. (1991). Principles of corporate finance, 4th Edition: New York, McGraw Hill Publishers.




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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW



Introduction
The literature review chapter covers review of data collected from various secondary sources such as books, articles, reports and websites for understanding and analysing the marketing strategy at Tesco its implications on the company itself and other companies in the industry. The different sections of this chapter incorporate previous researches and studies performed in marketing management, marketing strategy and the importance of marketing strategy in an organisation and its impact on other companies in the industry.


The problems that are caused by large retailers such as Tesco
A frequently occurring theme in the literature and from the interviews is the problem of competition from large retailers. A few of the problems that pertain to the competition small retailers are subjected to because of large retailers are summarized below.


Size of large retailers
Large retailers have drastically enhanced their market share over the preceding few years. For example, in food retailing in 1976 large retailers (defined in terms of turnover as those with revenues of over £5 million) consisted of 50 per cent of all retailing revenue. By 1991 the ratio covered by large retailers had increased to about 79 per cent. In addition to this, McGoldrick discovered that among the most important aspects of the retail sector has been the rising market share of the larger retailers at the cost of other types of retailer.
To achieve this one of the small retailer firms articulated its worries about Tesco’s acquisition of Adminstore Limited (Adminstore) in 2004. This acquisition covered 43 small stores (of less than 280 square metres in size) situated mainly in central London. Their worry was that the acquisition would raise Tesco’s market share to a position where it would be out of the question for small food retailers to stay in the industry.


The Office of Fair Trading (OFT) looked into Tesco’s acquisition of Adminstore but did not consign the case to the Competition Commission. The OFT decided that the acquisition by Tesco of Adminstore would not lead to a considerable reduction of competition within the industry, or industries, in the United Kingdom. One of the chief explanations for the OFT’s conclusion is due to the fact that it concluded that the obstacles to establishing small grocery stores are very slight. The line of reasoning is that if Tesco attempted to increase prices in its small outlets then other players could, very easily, establish small grocery outlets in order to compete, which would force Tesco to sustain its price, or more credibly, dissuading Tesco from ever starting the price increase.


Buyer Clout
One impact of the better market share of large retailers is that they have more buyer clout than small retailers and can secure lower prices from its suppliers. As a result large retailers are able to sell their wares at prices that small retailers usually find it hard to contend with. For this reason the prices charged by small retailers seem uncompetitive and they lose business because of it.


The small retailer firms divulged during the interviews that in some situations large retailers are able to purchase wares for such a low price that they are able to sell their wares for a lower price than small retailers who have to purchase them at higher prices from the wholesaler. Without a doubt in its report on improving shopping availability for people residing in deprived regions the Department of Health discovered that in many situations the average person on the street could purchase goods at lower prices from several retailers than small shopkeepers could from wholesalers.


The higher buyer clout of large retailers as opposed to small retailers is a major competitive edge for large retailers such as Tesco. In addition, it is expected to be a competitive edge that adds force to itself. Dobson (2003) introduces the concept of a virtuous circle for the very largest retailers through which size and market share result in bargaining discounts from suppliers. This results in a cost saving for large retailers over small retailers which enables them to spend in either better customer services or decreased prices. This raises the attractiveness of large retailers as opposed to small retailers and as a consequence this results in even greater sales for the large retailers which also highlight their buyer clout and so the cycle continues once more.


In addition, it may be possible that cost decreased obtained through greater buyer clout (as well as other aspects) makes it possible for large retailers to spread out into more areas. That is, by decreasing costs, regions that up to that time were not served may become financially feasible and so would be served by large retailers. This shift of large retailers into formerly underserved regions may make the region more feasible for other retailers because of the effect large retailers have on footfall in the area.




To label one or action as “selfless”



To many people the label altruist is likely to solve some difficult mental problem to them. Their definition of altruism is denying ones self for higher good; yet sometimes they do not imagine any person willingly sacrificing all those things that include their conception for the self for some greater cause. After all people with self-interested respect does not willingly give that self respect for anything else. Now how then can a person give accord to the actions that seems to have altruism? To label one or action as “selfless” or “altruistic” will answer this conundrum.


Altruism here is viewed as a character trait while selflessness is seen something that comes easily to somebody because that is part of how he or she work and others does not necessarily posses that same character trait. Some people having explained altruistic actions of others in terms of traits which seemingly they don’t have, need not to speculate further why altruists are motivated to do selfless acts.


This makes those people to fend off some uneasy questions which are of their personal moral duty in relation to altruist’s perceived actions. Therefore polarizing altruism and selfishness to be a personal trait can enable individuals to avoid their moral actions responsibility. Polarity between altruism and self interest will provide a rationalization for failing to be altruistic: because it is viewed as very immense, too much of a sacrifice. This explains apathy and moral laxity towards the problems facing the world.




CHAPTER TWO 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW



The Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) 1984, the Mental Health Act 1983 (as amended by the Mental Health Act 2007) vividly recommends the availability of an adult during the trial of a child to ensure a fair trial for the child. This is due to the perceived undue influence that may be imposed on the child by other interested parties in the given case, for instance, lawyers. For instance in the case of Leach v Chief Constable of Gloucestershire Constabulary, Negligence – Duty of care – Police – Plaintiff acting as appropriate adult – Plaintiff claiming damages against police for psychological injury – Whether police owing duty of care to plaintiff – Codes of Practice under Code C. Or may give information that is unreliable to the officers which may later impact negatively on admissibility of evidence in a court proceeding.


Blumberg, A. (2009). Criminal Justice System: Issues and Ironies. New York: SAGE.


This book remains important in this work, given that it takes to analyze the dynamics of the criminal justice system. Most of the dynamics are those that are not usually anticipated; rotating on the loopholes that exist in the legal structures. Some of the legal technicalities such as what constitutes solid evidence are spelt out, in respect to the book. It advocated for the presence of an adult during the trial of a legal victim, witness, plaintiff or accused who is considered mentally unstable. The author stresses on the fact that the “mentally unstable” might give information that is unreliable to the police or may give information that end up incriminating themselves. It is therefore critical to have an adult during the questioning of the child. The book has been published by the Sage publishing company in New York.
Galaway, B. (2006). Adults presence: International Perspectives. New York: Prentice Hall.


This book by Galaway was published in New York, by the Prentice Hall Publishing Company. The main intent of the book is to address different perspectives that are extant, the world over, concerning adults presence. The importance of this book towards this study is to show that despite the fact that adults presence is seen as a weak alternative to the criminal justice system, the dynamics and loopholes in the world’s legal systems remain visible, calling for the need to embrace adults presence universally. This will include allowing for an adult presence during the questioning of child.


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