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Free Research Paper Sample on Outline on pricing strategies for Costcos and Sam’s Club



Compare differences:


The differences are profound between the two, yet conceptually they are very similar. Both “warehouse” concepts sell in bulk fashion. If you’re looking for a small jar of Grey Poupon mustard, forget either of these two warehouse stores. But, if you want two side-by-side 16-ounce jars of Grey Poupon, enough to satisfy a football team, then you have come to the right place.


As similar as these two are, the differences do exist. Costco offers tremendous prices to its customers (club members) and quality. Costco has figured out the consumer will come in with a set list of items to be purchased, only to be enticed to expand that list as they walk the store. Strategically placed “special” items, or Costco employees serving out free samples of delicious food and drink items not normally found on the customer’s list. It’s brilliant marketing: on-site demonstrations and/or sampling of the product. “An impulse purchase” is the expression I have used many, many times as I’ve explained to my wife why I bought this or that.


Costco has a private label brand named Kirkland that has become synonymous with quality and low prices. The simple business model at Costco is to mark up the general products by 13% to 14%, and that’s after they have acquired the product in bulk at a very low price. The private label, Kirkland, carries a similar mark-up of 14% to 15%, just a little higher than general merchandise.


Costco has the most loyal employees because they pay exceptionally well, $13 to $14 per hour, with full benefits. Sure, Costco could cut corners on their labor costs, but they have this funny idea about actually offering customers something unusual — it’s called service. Amazing for a store that big to add the human touch.


Sam’s Club offers similar general items as Costco, but the choices can be limited and the quality, upscale selections are marginal. The environment at Sam’s can be a little disheartening: mediocre lighting, cluttered aisles, and very little in customer service. Sam’s Club will fullfill the “list” as previously mentioned, but Costco enhances the list.


The proof is in the pudding. Costco has beaten Sam’s Club in the critical metric of same-store sales 64 of the past 73 months. The other vital, key component is that 87% of Costco members renew their memberships. The club memberships are tiered from $45 per year to $100 per year. Customer loyalty is fiercely guarded at Costco, and having happy, well-compensated


Costco carries a market capitalization of $24 billion and has a clear opportunity to build the company to a $100 billion market cap. The market size and acceptance will easily allow Costco to double the store base over the next decade. Costco’s consensus estimates for August 31, 2007, fiscal year call for revenues of $65 billion and earnings per share of $2.55. The 2008 numbers are revenues of $73 billion and earnings per share of $2.90 to $2.95.


Sam’s Club numbers are part of the larger Wal-Mart numbers. The market capitalization of Wal-Mart is currently $200 billion and consensus estimates for January 31, 2008 and 2009 call for revenues of $381 billion and $410 billion, and earnings per share of $3.20 and $3.50 respectively.


Clearly, from an investor’s point of view, the better growth story is Costco. From a shopper’s point of view, the more pleasant experience is also at Costco.


Costco has the most loyal employees because they pay exceptionally well, $13 to $14 per hour, with full benefits. Sure, Costco could cut corners on their labor costs, but they have this funny idea about actually offering customers something unusual — it’s called service. Amazing for a store that big to add the human touch.


Sam’s Club offers similar general items as Costco, but the choices can be limited and the quality, upscale selections are marginal. The environment at Sam’s can be a little disheartening: mediocre lighting, cluttered aisles, and very little in customer service. Sam’s Club will fullfill the “list” as previously mentioned, but Costco enhances the list.

Sam’s Club’s basic “advantage” membership is $35 for businesses and $40 for individuals, which also includes a second membership card for a household member. Its “plus” memberships for businesses and individuals is $100  and offers members discounts and earlier opening hours – 7 a.m. Monday through Saturday. The company also offers a collegiate membership for college students for $40, which includes a $15 Sam’s Club gift card.


Conclusion


Some people may be wooed by Costco’s $110 executive membership, which rewards shoppers with a 2 percent return on purchases. Realize you’d need to spend $2,750 there each year to recoup the increased membership cost.


In conclusion, Sam’s Club has a lower score than First Data because it should not be in the business of reselling credit card processing services. Although offering merchant services is a great way for Sam’s Club to make some extra money, there’s isn’t much of a benefit in it for its customers.




Cost of Equity: Paper Writing Samples



In financial hypothesis, the return that stockholders want for a firm/company is known as cost of equity. The basic formula to calculate the cost of equity is based on dividend capitalization model that is:

A firm’s cost of equity characterizes the return that the market necessitates in trade for owning the assets and bearing the risk of possession. Two methods can be used to find out the cost of equity. Two widely used methods to determine the cost of equity is Dividend growth model and security market line approach.

Cost of Debt
Debt elements of capital might include numerous line items i.e. loans from numerous financial organizations with different terms and costs and preferred stock. Some of the loans might have floating or fixed interest rate. The more other components of debt are bonds and leases. The efficient rate that a firm disburses on its present debt can be determined prior to or after the tax returns as the interest cost is deductible. A firm uses numerous loans, bonds and other kinds of debt so this measure is helpful for providing an idea as to the largely rate being salaried by the firm to utilize the debt money. This measure or technique can also enrich the investor with the idea about the risk ness of the firm as related to others as the riskier firms have higher cost of debt.

To calculate the cost of debt, first the firms needs to calculate the individual cost of each element of debt than calculate the weighted average cost of capital. For example, if there are seven bonds issues than 1st, we will calculate the cost of each individual bond than will move towards calculating the weighted average cost of capital to find the overall cost of debt.


Weighted Average Cost of Capital
WACC is the rate that a firm anticipated to pay on standard to all of its shareholders to finance their assets. A firm’s resources are funded by the use of debt or equity and the WACC is the average cost of these two resources of funding, each one is weighted by its individual utilization. By calculating the WACC, a firm can evaluate that how much interest the firm has to compensate for each dollar it finance.

As a whole, WACC is overall required return on the firm and it is also exercised inside the firm to decide the financial viability of expansionary openings and amalgamations. The general formula for calculating the WACC is:


CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model)
The resources returns depends on the sum compensated for the asset at present. The cost paid should guarantee that the market collection risk and return distinctiveness progress when the asset is putted to it. The CAPM (Capital asset pricing model) is a model which forces the hypothetical compulsory return for an asset in marketplace, specified the risk free rate presented to the shareholders and the risk of marketplace as a total. The general formula to calculate the CAPM is:

CAPM is also a desired model that is used to compute the cost of equity.



Firm’s financial mix
Investment choices depend upon the cost of capital. Capital is collected to grant money services that are key input for the productive process. Capital for a firm comprises of reasonable ratio of debt and equity which is also called financial mix.

Financial mix is a name used in the business world to describe a combination of debt to equity in a firm. This term is use to explain the formula that describes how much investment is being lifted by the debt and how a lot is being lifted by the equity. Financial firms believe that financial mix have an important impact on rising or lessening the worth of a firm. Debt financing is basically a money advance of cash that must have to be pay back, usually with an interest form on crest and equity, on the other side, is financing policy that is obtained from shareholders of the firm and does not essentially have to be paid back, though shareholders will usually be expecting a level of required return for their assets.

Conclusion
The cost of capital has strapping consequences for the firms that makes investments and it can be manipulated by the financial resources. This research paper discusses the cost of capital and its various components to find out weighted average cost of capital of a firm. The sum of all components of cost of capital like cost of debt and cost of equity brings WACC of the firm that is overall required rate of return on firm’s financial assets. Financial mix describes the ratio of debt to equity of a firm and has significant impacts on the overall worth of the firm.

References


Ross, A Stephen. (1977). The Capital asset pricing model (CAPM), Short sale restrictions and related issues, Journal of Finance, 32 (177)


Pastor, L. & Stambaugh, R. F. (1999). Costs of Equity Capital and Model Mispricing: American Finance Association. Journal of Finance, 54(1), 67-121.


Fama, E. F. & French, K.R. (1999). The Corporate cost of capital and the return on corporate investment: American Finance Association. Journal of Finance, 54(6), 1939-1967.


Van Horne & Wachowicz. (2004). Fundamentals of financial management. New York: Prentice Hall Publishers.


Richard, Brealey & Stewart. (1991). Principles of corporate finance, 4th Edition: New York, McGraw Hill Publishers.




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Tesco: An Overview



Researchers and strategists actually claim that Tesco actually works on the principle of aggressive marketing techniques that are applicable in both the short and the long run. It is the strategy of Tesco that have actually made Tesco the best retailer in the world. Their retail strategy is quite distinct with other retailers. Tesco is considered as a champion retailer and they have shown greater energy and responsiveness to certain volatile marker places and that is the reason why different retailers and have felt this pressure of the champion. Their strategy is actually the core power of this mega brand. The main strategy of Tesco is that they focus on scenario of customers and that is the reason why they have excelled in both the short and the long run. They also work with the simple strategy that is what you actually see in the shops is what you exactly get in the stores (Heller 2005).


Marketing Strategy at Tesco
The market orientation is one of the greatest factors in the development of the strategy and the management of Tesco plays an important role and their philosophies is based on the scenario that no one tries harder for customers and treat people how we like to be treated. The values of this organisation are actually created because of the internal marketing strategy of this organisation and this also includes the distribution of newspaper to the employees (Anthony 2008). Different schemes of this organisation are viable in both the short and the long run and the employees kept in their mind that they are working for the biggest retailer that is the reason why the strategies that are created should be viable in both the short and the long run. The staff of this organisation is briefed about the importance of Clubcard and that is the reason why internal launch was initiated with the internal marketing (Humby and Phillips 2004).


Purpose of this research
The entire research is focused on the scenario that what is the actual impact of Tesco Marketing Strategies on small retail outlets that are operating in the United Kingdom. In the similar manner emphasis is laid on the scenario that how these small retail businesses adopt strategies in order to face the mammoth marketing strategies of retail giant Tesco. Emphasis is laid on the core marketing strategies of both Tesco and several small retail outlets. The research is based on qualitative analysis and the strategy of questionnaire is used extensively to check the hypothesis. In the similar manner it can be said that the core purpose of this research report is to identify the marketing and strategies decisions that are taken by Tesco and other organisations. However, it can be said that the core aim of this research is based on the scenario that what are the short and the long term effects of the 4P’s of Tesco on other small retailers in north London UK.


Scope of the research
The scope of the research is limited towards the marketing strategies of Tesco and certain other small retail outlets that are operating in the United Kingdom. In order to evaluate their effectiveness emphasis is laid on the secondary research and that s the reason why it can be said that emphasis is laid on the secondary research and qualitative data is analysed in this research. It can also be said that in order to check the effectiveness of this research this research will incorporate the primary data and responses of retailers will be analysed. However, it can also be said that the scope of this research is limited to North London UK.


Research Questions
There are certain research questions that are be analysed in the dissertation and these research questions are answered in the findings and analysis chapter of this dissertation. The research questions are listed below:


1. What are the effects of Tesco’s price marketing strategy on small retail businesses that are operating in North London?
2. What are the effects of Tesco’s product marketing strategy on small retail business that are operating in North London?

3. What are the effects of Tesco’s promotional marketing strategy on small retail business that is operating in North London?
4. What are the effects of Tesco’s Place marketing strategy on small retail business that is operating in North London?


Hypothesis of the research
The hypothesis of the research is Tesco’s marketing strategy is creating difficulties for small retailers of United Kingdom and they are unable to target the customers in an effective and an efficient way. The hypothesis will be tested through both secondary and primary researches and through proper research the hypothesis will either be accepted or rejected.




Marketing Strategy



Marketing strategy is the process though which organisations use their scarce resources to achieve competitive advantage in an industry through creating opportunities for increased revenues by applying various methods and techniques (Baker 2008). According to Ferrell and Hartline (2007) the strategic planning process involves an in depth analysis of an organisation’s internal and external environment and implementing tools and techniques to gain a competitive advantage within this environment. The strategic planning process is also referred to as a situational analysis where the situation and environment is evaluated and marketing techniques are implemented through a specific marketing strategy. Implementing a marketing strategy is not only important to gain a competitive advantage but also for the long term survival of an organisation especially in the retailing industry. According to Lamb, Hair and McDaniel (2008) implementing a marketing strategy in any type of retailing company are very important and lead to strategic competitive advantage within the retailing industry.


Sethi (2009) described ten methods of improving a marketing strategy in the current environment which include new strategies for new times, segmentation and decision, search for newer markets, emphasis on value and brand portfolio, updating distribution channels, helping the consumer through various techniques, providing state of the art products and services for consumer convenience, applying effective communication techniques, going digital and using various Information Technology tools and techniques and analysing the changing patterns of consumer demands and behaviour.


Types of Marketing Strategies
There are several types of marketing strategy as described by many researchers and practitioners which are based on various concepts and frameworks. According to Christ (2009) the types of marketing strategies applied by companies are market leader, market challenger, market follower, market niche and alliance marketing. Turnbull and Valla (1986) presented five types of marketing strategies which include technical innovative strategy, product adaptation strategy, availability and security strategy, low price strategy and total adaptation or conformity strategy. Companies implement one of these types of marketing strategies or a mix of these strategies to gain competitive advantage within an organisation.




Adults presence in Thames valley police



Thames valley police is an organization operating in the fringes of the city of London which has a total of around six thousand police officers and support staff, covering an area populated by approximately two million people (Thames Valley Police, 2010). For a long time before this program was initiated juvenile delinquency was a major problem. In England young offender are defined as those aged 17 years and under (Morris, & Maxwell, 2001).


Due to the seriousness attached to the problem of young offenders in any society, especially due to the fact that every habitual offender almost always starts committing crime in childhood. This therefore means that if they can be “caught early” the level of crime in that particular society will be drastically reduced (Morris, & Maxwell, 2001). This is precisely the reason that kick-started Thames valley police in acting on the problem as a matter of urgency, a decision that gave birth to the program on the same (Thames Valley Police, 2010).


Adults presence in this case was grounded on the fact that the earlier the risk factors in young people that are likely to push them in crime are identified the more you are likely to halt their descent to criminal enterprises, and the earlier you can stop this altogether before these habits have reached certain levels or become fully instilled, the better the chances one has of keeping these children from crime and subsequently improving their life (Lozoff, 2010). In this regard some of the risk factors that were identified included illiteracy and innumeracy, criminal peer pressure, and arbitrary parental discipline (Thames Valley Police, 2010).


Since the 1970s, police in England have been dealing on youngster caught committing criminal acts on a “telling off” in the first two to three times that they have been caught (Kilkelly, 2006). This treatment has been premised on the need to obviate the likelihood of tarnishing their criminal record at such a tender age (Kilkelly, 2006). One of the things about this method that informed the decision to look for a more effective way of dealing with this menace was the realization that the traditional methods were untested and superficial thereby making them impotent in effectively dealing with young offenders. This program was therefore driven by the need to engage the youths more powerfully from committing crime and sliding into full time criminality in the following years.


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Herein, Brown (1989)



This journal article was written by Greenwood and was published under the aegis of the Utah Law Review. The journal article remains important in spelling out some of the cases that serve as the hallmark in human history. Interestingly, these hallmarks are marked with a sense of injustice against a people as is exemplified by the history of the Jews. The suffering of the Jews in the Holocaust is shown as a classical case, given that it can only be addressed by resorting to adults presence.


Herein, Brown (1989) gives an analysis of adults presence using real life cases that she has experienced in her work as a criminal lawyer. Brown (1989) asserts that the majority of the correctional institutions in America do not particularly support the idea of contact between victims and offenders held, in spite of the fact that there are victims who want to meet with offenders through processes of mediated dialogues. The resource has greatly contributed to this topic because of highlighting a unique area in adults presence, the ideology of restorative dialogue between victims and offenders and the police officers during the questioning process. The research exemplified here is qualitative as well as quantitative.


This above is a collection by Philips and Brown (1998) on various issues affecting adults presence during a case; the book embarks on examining international trends in adults presence and proceeds to analyze the progress made in crime control in today’s societies in connection with adults presence. Further, the book examines case studies in a number of nations such as South Africa where gated communities have greatly influenced peace building and adults presence during case. Theories that relate to adults presence have been examined as well, for example the theory of Law as Peacekeeping.


Using quantitative research, the authors have significantly contributed to this topic by examining adults presence in a wide angle, examining global issues that have greatly affected how criminal justice is practiced.
Umbreit, M. (2004). Victim Meets Offender: The Impact of Adults presence and Mediation.


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