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Economics Paper: Public spending and public choice



As far as public spending is concerned, it is expenditure incurred by the public sector in the course of its activities. There are many ways to measure public spending, in which total managed expenditure, departmental expenditure limits and annual managed expenditures are at the top. Governments have obligation to spend on its people as it collects tax money from them. For instance, government always invests in local infrastructure for certain improvements. It is beauty of democratic solutions that it makes government responsible to take better care of its people.


It is the theory of modern economic tools to study problems and traditional chaos prevailing in regional settings. Public choice enables political forces and economical forces to healthy interact with each other. It calculates the importance of political forces for economic development. Globalization has failed all outdated practices, which were just about the development of unanimous economic activity. Today, countries have to develop significant political relationships to foster economic activity. Eventually, public choice is highly interlinked with political trends setting.


The macroeconomic unemployment
Macroeconomic unemployment is the result of ineffective macroeconomic forces, which causes unemployment rate higher day by day. Unemployment rate is badly increasing all over the world. Companies haven’t been in condition to support large workforce. However, many of them have started practicing cost cut strategy; employee retrenchment is the easiest and simplest way to reduce cost. If unemployment rate is 1% then equation would be as below.
% change in real GDP = 3% – 2 x (change in unemployment rate)


Inflation and deflation
When large amount of money is chasing for a few products then it would called inflation. People often lose their financial capability to bear their expenditure during inflation trends. Money value depreciates during inflationary trend, and product prices used to hike up during these trends.


When few amount of money is chasing for many products it would be called deflationary trends. It is reversely proportional to inflationary trends. People can purchase all desired products within limited budgets. Money value often increases during such trends.


Measuring economy
Economic measurement is to be done by the help of gross domestic production. It indicates the money value of all domestically produced products. On other hand, gross national production is another valuable tool to measure the health of economy.

GNP= FCE + GCF+ (X − M)


Global economic growth and development
Global economic growth and economic development have been increased by increase in export units, if some country domestically consumes all produced resources then it would not be in position to develop sound international relationships today.


Real GDP and the price level in long run
Real GDP is physical calculation of gross domestic production, when economists don’t make nominal GDP as base point to compare GDP growth. As far as price level is concerned, price phenomena have direct linkage with demand supply mechanism. Here is a example for understanding.


Year CPI Nominal Interest Rate Inflation Rate Real Interest Rate
1 100 – – –
2 110 15% 10% 5%
3 120 13% 9.10% 3.90%
4 115 8% -4.20% 12.20%



Fiscal policy
Government spending policies that sways over macroeconomic conditions. However, these police impacts on government spending, tax rates and interest rates in order to control the economic forces.
Formula:
=1/1-MPC

References
Politics website (2012) ‘Public spending’ available at 23/02/2012 form http://www.politics.co.uk/reference/public-spending
William F. Shughart (2006) ‘Public Choice’ journal; 2, ISSN: 0048-5829, ed.1, and pp.12-78.




Economics Paper Writing Sample



Economics topic choices: The Nature of Economics, Scarcity and the World of Trade-Offs, Demand and Supply, Public Spending and Public Choice, The Macro economy Unemployment, Inflations and Deflation, Measuring the Economy~~s Performance, Global Economic Growth and Development, Real GDP and the Price Level in the Long Run, Classical and Keynesian Macro Analyses, Fiscal Policy


The nature of economics
The nature of economics discusses the distinction between macroeconomics and microeconomics. It also discusses the elements of an economic theory and model. Economics has ultimate relationship with consumer behavior; it works parallel to consumer choices as if they start demanding any commodities then its prices would hike up. It is economics, which highlights the importance of mass production conception, selective production, and market based production concepts.


Scarcity and world trade off
Scarcity is inability to generate satisfaction as of poor availability of resources. It is common thinking among economists that everything is getting scarce day by day. Individuals haven’t been changing their preferences and selection criteria. Price increase of product is one good example of scarcity as one product get scarce then its price is to be hiked up to manage the demand mechanism.
Trade off is a situation that involves losing one quality or aspect of something in return for gaining another. People don’t embrace new features if old ones have been satisfying their needs in better way. This welcomes to scarcity conception. Such consumer behavior always causes price increase in commodities. Eventually, consumers have to pay little more to fulfill such needs.


Demand and supply
Demand has reverse relationship with supply, if demand increases then supply will be in less amount. Similarly, less supply of products become the reason of the increase in demand. Eventually, increase in demand causes prices to be hiked. Customers have to pay off a bit more to satisfy same needs, which used to be satisfied by paying less in older days. For instance, petroleum prices have been continuously increasing up as of fewer supplies of petroleum products. International petrol markets have been deliberately using this fundamental concept.





Cost of Equity: Paper Writing Samples



In financial hypothesis, the return that stockholders want for a firm/company is known as cost of equity. The basic formula to calculate the cost of equity is based on dividend capitalization model that is:

A firm’s cost of equity characterizes the return that the market necessitates in trade for owning the assets and bearing the risk of possession. Two methods can be used to find out the cost of equity. Two widely used methods to determine the cost of equity is Dividend growth model and security market line approach.

Cost of Debt
Debt elements of capital might include numerous line items i.e. loans from numerous financial organizations with different terms and costs and preferred stock. Some of the loans might have floating or fixed interest rate. The more other components of debt are bonds and leases. The efficient rate that a firm disburses on its present debt can be determined prior to or after the tax returns as the interest cost is deductible. A firm uses numerous loans, bonds and other kinds of debt so this measure is helpful for providing an idea as to the largely rate being salaried by the firm to utilize the debt money. This measure or technique can also enrich the investor with the idea about the risk ness of the firm as related to others as the riskier firms have higher cost of debt.

To calculate the cost of debt, first the firms needs to calculate the individual cost of each element of debt than calculate the weighted average cost of capital. For example, if there are seven bonds issues than 1st, we will calculate the cost of each individual bond than will move towards calculating the weighted average cost of capital to find the overall cost of debt.


Weighted Average Cost of Capital
WACC is the rate that a firm anticipated to pay on standard to all of its shareholders to finance their assets. A firm’s resources are funded by the use of debt or equity and the WACC is the average cost of these two resources of funding, each one is weighted by its individual utilization. By calculating the WACC, a firm can evaluate that how much interest the firm has to compensate for each dollar it finance.

As a whole, WACC is overall required return on the firm and it is also exercised inside the firm to decide the financial viability of expansionary openings and amalgamations. The general formula for calculating the WACC is:


CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model)
The resources returns depends on the sum compensated for the asset at present. The cost paid should guarantee that the market collection risk and return distinctiveness progress when the asset is putted to it. The CAPM (Capital asset pricing model) is a model which forces the hypothetical compulsory return for an asset in marketplace, specified the risk free rate presented to the shareholders and the risk of marketplace as a total. The general formula to calculate the CAPM is:

CAPM is also a desired model that is used to compute the cost of equity.



Firm’s financial mix
Investment choices depend upon the cost of capital. Capital is collected to grant money services that are key input for the productive process. Capital for a firm comprises of reasonable ratio of debt and equity which is also called financial mix.

Financial mix is a name used in the business world to describe a combination of debt to equity in a firm. This term is use to explain the formula that describes how much investment is being lifted by the debt and how a lot is being lifted by the equity. Financial firms believe that financial mix have an important impact on rising or lessening the worth of a firm. Debt financing is basically a money advance of cash that must have to be pay back, usually with an interest form on crest and equity, on the other side, is financing policy that is obtained from shareholders of the firm and does not essentially have to be paid back, though shareholders will usually be expecting a level of required return for their assets.

Conclusion
The cost of capital has strapping consequences for the firms that makes investments and it can be manipulated by the financial resources. This research paper discusses the cost of capital and its various components to find out weighted average cost of capital of a firm. The sum of all components of cost of capital like cost of debt and cost of equity brings WACC of the firm that is overall required rate of return on firm’s financial assets. Financial mix describes the ratio of debt to equity of a firm and has significant impacts on the overall worth of the firm.

References


Ross, A Stephen. (1977). The Capital asset pricing model (CAPM), Short sale restrictions and related issues, Journal of Finance, 32 (177)


Pastor, L. & Stambaugh, R. F. (1999). Costs of Equity Capital and Model Mispricing: American Finance Association. Journal of Finance, 54(1), 67-121.


Fama, E. F. & French, K.R. (1999). The Corporate cost of capital and the return on corporate investment: American Finance Association. Journal of Finance, 54(6), 1939-1967.


Van Horne & Wachowicz. (2004). Fundamentals of financial management. New York: Prentice Hall Publishers.


Richard, Brealey & Stewart. (1991). Principles of corporate finance, 4th Edition: New York, McGraw Hill Publishers.




Cost of Capital: Paper Writing Sample



Abstract
This research paper discuss the cost of capital and its various components i.e. cots of debt and cost of equity in order to calculate the weighted average cost of capital that is overall required return on the firm financing assets. Moreover, financial mix (debt and equity) is also discussed to know the firm’s financing policies through debt and equity. The rationale of this examine paper is to talk about the cost of capital and its different elements.

Introduction
The cost of capital is possibly the most essential and extensively used idea in theory of finance. A key imminent from finance hypothesis is that, at all, the utilization of capital inflicts an opportunity cost on shareholders, specifically; finances are abstracted from receiving a return on the subsequent best similar risk speculation. As the investors have admittance to financial marketplace opportunities thus the firm’s utilization of investment should be benchmarked beside these investment market choices. The cost of capital better offers this benchmark. The cost of capital term is used in the area of financial investment to convey to the cost of a firm finances i.e. equity and debt. This method is used to assess the fresh projects of a firm because it is the minimum return that stockholders expect for supplying funds for the firm. The rationale of this examine paper is to talk about the cost of capital and its different elements.


Cost of Capital
The cost of capital finds out that how a firm can raise money i.e. through borrowing, issuing a stock or a mix of these two. Cost of capital is a rate of return that a firm would obtain if it invests its financial resources like money somewhere else with related risk. Cost of capital would comprise cost of debt and cost of equity.


Capital structure of a firm can comprises of preferred stocks, ordinary shares, short term and long term loans, bonds and leases etc. These whole fundamentals of capital formation have their individual price and if we include all the costs of each element after adjusting with weight age of each element, the consequential value is called WACC (weighted average cost of capital). WACC is minimum return that a firm earns on all of its existing components of capital structure to satisfy its owners, creditors or others who provide finance for the firm operations. WACC is an important element firms use if the asset plans accessible to them are valuable to take on or not. To calculate the WACC, first firms needs to calculate the individual costs of each element in capital structure. Let discuss them one by one.




Movie Analysis Paper Writing Help



The movie which has been selected for this assignment is Wall-Street in which the event of margin call has been discussed. Charlie Sheen and Michael Douglas star in Wall Street, director Oliver Stone’s depiction of the greed and excess that dominated American business and finance during the 1980s. Douglas received Best Actor accolades from the Academy Awards, Golden Globe Awards and the National Board of Review for his role as an unscrupulous Wall Street trader.


In the movie, a character is Ma Yun who was the leader of the traders, let’s see what leadership style he used in the movie to motivate their employees.


There are a number of leadership styles are present but the style adopted by MA YUN is peacock leadership style which often called Charismatic leadership style. The word Charismatic has been derived from Charisma which is a basic instinct or nature of a person. Charisma is in the personality of a person which attracts the followers. There is a positive effect of the charismatic personality of a leader on his follower. A Charismatic personality of a leader effectively influences on the employee’s performance and also helps the employees in directing their performance without any undue influence. Charismatic leadership also called transformational leadership style. So, we will use these both of these terms interchangeably.


The leadership style adopted by MA YUN is transformational and in the mean time theory X style as well. Theory X style is a style in which the manager thinks that employees love their work and can not be forced to accomplish the task (Lussier & Christopher, 2009). By reading the movie, it can be said with authenticity that MA YUN supports his employees. MA YUN believes on the Maslow theory to meet the basic needs of his employees. He never does undue influence on his employees regarding the work done and for any other thing. The biggest positive node for the employees is that the boss trust them and according to the employees of MA YUN, “This person is very confident and trustworthy with a kind heart” and never laid down his any employee. Peacock leadership style adopted by MA JAU consists of a number of personality traits includes individual charm, unusual cohesion, ability to enhance interpersonal relationship and self confidence.


All of these things have been found in the personality of MA YUN. The best thing found in this person is Self Confidence and his ability to enhance long term interpersonal relationship with his employees and colleagues. According to his employees confidence is in the eyes of this person which makes his personality really charismatic and the charisma is enough for the employees to direct their performance. Due to the nature of MA JAU as a theory X manager, his employees are self motivated and confident and have full confidence on his leader. MA JAU always cares for his employee that is why he always uses effective methods of incentives for the employees.


By reading all these discussions do not assume that MA JAU is a soft person who can compromise because MA JAU never compromise on the work and target achievement. He will be very kind and gentle with you if you really want to work with heart or if not then he probably does not needs you.

References


Dereli, M (2010), Different Leadership Styles, John Wiley & Sons Professional Publications


Hellriegel, D & Slocum, J (2007), Organizational Behavior, London, Oxford University Publications


Kippenberger, T (2002), Leadership Styles, New York, McGraw Hill


Lussier, R & Christopher, A (2009), Leadership: Theory & Applications, Pearson Group Publications


Lawrence, J & Gitman. N (2008), The Futures of Business: The Essentials, Prentice Hall Publications


Mehrota, A (2008), Leadership Styles of Principals, Prentice Hall Publications




Darwinism of Dissertation Writing



Darwan set the parameters of institutionalism, and process oriented mechanism. However, a pre-settled connection has been notified among evolutionary theory and Dawanism. He was the creating mind behind theory of evolutionary for specifies. Furthermore, theory of evolutionary is to be in the hands of different philosopher of different time periods. They all added fruitful contribution with respect to their own observation. Evolutionary theory doesn’t refer change essential for seeing lucrative developments. Changes are processes influenced by traits, hereditary, selection and variation etc. second skepticism about evolutionary theory is that it has been associated along the far reaching doctrine of laissez faire. Hence, this theory has made a direct link with liberalism and conservative. Darwinism has merely distinctive characteristics as of actor network theory. From social science views, it is important to realize that Darwinism isn’t an alternative to a detailed explanation of social phenomena. Management accounting change is some how guided by Darwinism, but some of refinements are still required.


Actor network theory:


Actor network theory belongs to esthetic management accounting innovations. Herewith, better understanding is required in order to be well informed about accounting change. Therewith, changes made by using fundamentals of actor network theory have been noticed in Georges Perrin method, and activity based costing. Hence, there are three different ways for determining the worth of organizational change. For instance, diffusion of innovation, innovation agents, and time frame etc. actor network theory pays minute attention on to change process. As far as accounting change is concerned, it is non linear within which success or failure of technology can never be projected along given social factors list. Therewith, success and failure are either due to social achievements of different human or non human actors. People who believe in innovations are called innovators. (Simon alcoffe. Nicolas Berland, Yves Levant (2008)


Accounting system & control:


When the word system come thence accounting systems is found with constitutional organizational routines and rules. Institutional economics frame the change as ongoing relationship amid institutions and actors. Conventional wisdom sketches management accounting change in terms of big source of information particularly for management planning and controlling. Herewith, evolutionary theory is evidently found for developing a framework for conceptualizing management accounting change. This theory is felt oblige for fascinating to rule based behavior and routine organizational systems and practices. Therewith, management accounting change is a system either, not overwhelmed phenomena that leads to distracted pathology. Modiger and miller gave clues of three interlinked theories such as institutional sociology theory, economics theory and institutional theory etc. herewith, previously formulated rules must be modified as by considering current era requirements. For instance, budgeting procedures has been laid down in budgeting manuals. However, these weren’t having any existence before the commencement of acknowledgement of the legal status of merger and acquisition.


References:


Burns, J. ( 2000). The dynamics of accounting change. Inter-play between
New practises, routines, institutions, power and politics. Accounting
Auditing & Accountability Journal 13 (5), 566–596.


Burns, J., Baldvinsdottir, G. (2005). An institutional perspective of accoun-
tants’ new roles – the interplay of contradictions and praxis. European
Accounting Review 11, 725–757.


Lounsbury, M., (2008). Institutional rationality and practice variation: new
directions in the institutional analysis of practice. Accounting, Orga-
nizations and Society 33 (4–5), 349–361.


Tobias Johansson, sven siverbo (2009) ‘why is research on management accounting change not explicity evolutionary? Taking the next step in the conceptualization of management accounting change’ management accounting research journal, 20, p146-162.


Simon alcoffe. Nicolas Berland, Yves Levant (2008) ‘Actor networks and the diffusion of management accounting innovations: A comparative study, management accounting research 19, pp.1-17.





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