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Cost of Equity: Paper Writing Samples



In financial hypothesis, the return that stockholders want for a firm/company is known as cost of equity. The basic formula to calculate the cost of equity is based on dividend capitalization model that is:

A firm’s cost of equity characterizes the return that the market necessitates in trade for owning the assets and bearing the risk of possession. Two methods can be used to find out the cost of equity. Two widely used methods to determine the cost of equity is Dividend growth model and security market line approach.

Cost of Debt
Debt elements of capital might include numerous line items i.e. loans from numerous financial organizations with different terms and costs and preferred stock. Some of the loans might have floating or fixed interest rate. The more other components of debt are bonds and leases. The efficient rate that a firm disburses on its present debt can be determined prior to or after the tax returns as the interest cost is deductible. A firm uses numerous loans, bonds and other kinds of debt so this measure is helpful for providing an idea as to the largely rate being salaried by the firm to utilize the debt money. This measure or technique can also enrich the investor with the idea about the risk ness of the firm as related to others as the riskier firms have higher cost of debt.

To calculate the cost of debt, first the firms needs to calculate the individual cost of each element of debt than calculate the weighted average cost of capital. For example, if there are seven bonds issues than 1st, we will calculate the cost of each individual bond than will move towards calculating the weighted average cost of capital to find the overall cost of debt.


Weighted Average Cost of Capital
WACC is the rate that a firm anticipated to pay on standard to all of its shareholders to finance their assets. A firm’s resources are funded by the use of debt or equity and the WACC is the average cost of these two resources of funding, each one is weighted by its individual utilization. By calculating the WACC, a firm can evaluate that how much interest the firm has to compensate for each dollar it finance.

As a whole, WACC is overall required return on the firm and it is also exercised inside the firm to decide the financial viability of expansionary openings and amalgamations. The general formula for calculating the WACC is:


CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model)
The resources returns depends on the sum compensated for the asset at present. The cost paid should guarantee that the market collection risk and return distinctiveness progress when the asset is putted to it. The CAPM (Capital asset pricing model) is a model which forces the hypothetical compulsory return for an asset in marketplace, specified the risk free rate presented to the shareholders and the risk of marketplace as a total. The general formula to calculate the CAPM is:

CAPM is also a desired model that is used to compute the cost of equity.



Firm’s financial mix
Investment choices depend upon the cost of capital. Capital is collected to grant money services that are key input for the productive process. Capital for a firm comprises of reasonable ratio of debt and equity which is also called financial mix.

Financial mix is a name used in the business world to describe a combination of debt to equity in a firm. This term is use to explain the formula that describes how much investment is being lifted by the debt and how a lot is being lifted by the equity. Financial firms believe that financial mix have an important impact on rising or lessening the worth of a firm. Debt financing is basically a money advance of cash that must have to be pay back, usually with an interest form on crest and equity, on the other side, is financing policy that is obtained from shareholders of the firm and does not essentially have to be paid back, though shareholders will usually be expecting a level of required return for their assets.

Conclusion
The cost of capital has strapping consequences for the firms that makes investments and it can be manipulated by the financial resources. This research paper discusses the cost of capital and its various components to find out weighted average cost of capital of a firm. The sum of all components of cost of capital like cost of debt and cost of equity brings WACC of the firm that is overall required rate of return on firm’s financial assets. Financial mix describes the ratio of debt to equity of a firm and has significant impacts on the overall worth of the firm.

References


Ross, A Stephen. (1977). The Capital asset pricing model (CAPM), Short sale restrictions and related issues, Journal of Finance, 32 (177)


Pastor, L. & Stambaugh, R. F. (1999). Costs of Equity Capital and Model Mispricing: American Finance Association. Journal of Finance, 54(1), 67-121.


Fama, E. F. & French, K.R. (1999). The Corporate cost of capital and the return on corporate investment: American Finance Association. Journal of Finance, 54(6), 1939-1967.


Van Horne & Wachowicz. (2004). Fundamentals of financial management. New York: Prentice Hall Publishers.


Richard, Brealey & Stewart. (1991). Principles of corporate finance, 4th Edition: New York, McGraw Hill Publishers.




Research questions for Tax Dissertation



  1. Why did the EU from single markets
  2. Why taxes are are not harmonized
  3. What are the benefits and disadvantages of tax harmonization?


Theoretical framework:


In theoretical framework, it is to require showing relationship between dependent and independent variables, and it is necessary as well to identify moderating and intervening variables. For current research work, harmonization taxes are to be taken as dependent variable while EU single market is supposedly considered independent variable. On other hand, mobility factors within European Union territory is tagged with moderating entitlement. The role of moderating variables is to cause incremental into the relationship of dependent and independent variables.


Research design:


As far as research methods are concerned, we have decided to collect data from secondary sources. On other hand, we can take design a poll on different social networking sites in order to have customer opinion towards our topic. Taxes statistics can be consulted for the sake of bit of help in understanding the importance of taxes for government projects. However, it is hardcore for governments as to invest in public development projects without having fund in public accounts. therefore, government can never stay out from all this because it is some how mandatory for its survival. Government employee’s salaries and expenditures allusion to tax income. Government doesn’t have any other source of income.


Research methods:


It is required from us to take help from some of important and vital research methods for the purpose to make research work significant. For this particular reason, we are supposed to employ statistics techniques. Hence, we will be employing ANOVA table, Percentile analysis, statistic summary, and confidence interval measurement. We can not go blind without knowing the soul of research study. On other hand, ratio analysis specific technique has to be employed as well because it is quite essential to know about mobility rate, and annual turn over of all European states. External competition doesn’t like this coalition between European states as tax harmonization causes increment in tax rates thence it would be becoming difficult for small and medium enterprises to be survived in external competition. Commission is therefore required to formulate policies with full vigilance otherwise the day is nearer when market never allow to small competitor to keep carrying its business in longer means. Brutal marketing strategies


Conclusion:


European commission had decided many moons back in history to follow symmetry tax charges. With the passing time, it has become necessity of time that higher earning industries have to be put tax requirements as for enabling government to perform in better sense. Government projects can never be run without tax money. Hence, government is not among the earning bodies thus it runs with people money given in the shape of taxes. Single market operations will be devastated what if it are to be imposed higher tax rates. External competition has dug its position against European Union inside situation. it is ready waiting for good time, and whenever it gets chance then it will conquer each thing.  There is no doubt about it that single market operations are the biggest power themselves, and bigger threat for international companies.


Reference:


EC regulatory authority (2010) ‘Single market for goods; market surveillance’ from http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/single-market-goods/regulatory-policies-common-rules-for-products/new-legislative-framework/market-surveillance/index_en.htm [16/11/2010]


George Osborne (2008) ‘European single market’ from http://www.politics.co.uk/briefings-guides/issue-briefs/foreign-policy/european-single-market-$366685.htm[16/11/2010]


Tom stults (2004) ‘Tax harmonization versus tax competition: a review of the literature’ from http://economics.about.com/cs/moffattentries/a/harmonization.htm [16/11/2010]


McEnaney (2008) ‘Tax harmonization by back dor threaten our economic survival’ from http://www.independent.ie/business/irish/tax-harmonisation-by-back-door-threatens-our-economic-survival-1353847.html[16/11/2010]





THE EU’S SINGLE MARKET; THE IMPACT OF A FAILURE TO HARMONISE TAXES



Introduction:

EU single market operations have been installed in 1985 for the purpose to make movement within European Union countries without technical, physical and tax related barriers. However, the main aim of European Union committee was to stimulate commercial and industrial expansion as by attaining unified market operations in the favor of European countries. Later on, it became a great threat for whole world because developed countries came to this side for giving tough time to whole world. In single market operations; companies may take couple advantage over rest of competitors as EU companies may expand their manufacturing plants around EU countries. For instance, fabric manufacturing companies don’t afford extra expenditure on employees therefore they prefer to open up their manufacturing plants where they can find cheap labor rates. Hence, they open up such setups in where they can find their desired advantage. in single market operations activities used to be interlinked with each other therefore its main purpose is to produce products for community market. On other hand, a holding authority is needed to control all these functions on ground level that is European Union, which is supposed responsible for taking care of community harmonization legislation. They need to ensure health concerning issues covered by manufacturer. Hence, single market operations used to be surveillance by regional authorities as for knowing the convenient and promising features available by company to its valuable customers. (EC regulatory authority (2010).



As far as objectives of single market are concerned, the intentions behind in coalition of market forces are to merged together in order to work freely and unified system against external market forces. European Union member states don’t want to let any other state allow interpenetrating through loopholes therefore a joint action has been taken against dominant market elements. For this particular reason, emergence of euro currency came into experience, which is good sign for all European countries as it protected them from the worries of exchange rates. Single market operations don’t offer tax constraints to companies. Thus, companies can carry their equipment and plants within specified region.

Research objectives:

  1. We want to study EU single market operations
  2. We want to investigate the impact of a failure to harmonize taxes.
  3. We want to investigate the role of EU single market in the context of tax implementation.
  4. We want to study; why problems can this cause





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Evolutionary theory of My DIssertation



This theory had been presented by thorstein veblen, whose work had some extremist elements about the concept of institutionalism. Hence, he was strong supporter of cumulative causality and process oriented viewpoint. Charles Darwan highlighted the same points in his species theory. Herewith, evolutionary theory differs from institutional theory. Veblen hauled up economics, not as an evolutionary science. Evolutionary theory can demonstrate management accounting change in the best possible manners. Herewith, full potential of evolutionary theory hasn’t been fully utilized for management accounting change. (Lounsbury, M., (2008).Evolutionary theory has been grounded with set of thoughts that it incorporates only to gradual and often slow changes.


What if this particular limitation took off from this respective theory thence core understanding about management accounting change can be improved. As far as general conception of management accounting is concerned, it’s the outcome of the relationship of bookbinding interrelation between evolutionary sub processes of retention, selection and variation. Hence, change and continuity are both seemingly evolutionary outcomes. Institutional economics prospective can be improved as if conception about evolutionary is not to be felt gradual or slower. Parameters of institutional theory must be set evolutionary. It is probably the righteous way to be at safer position. True soul of change management can never be installed unless foundations are understood well. Herewith, evolutionary process has resemblance with process oriented revisions of the word change.


However, management accounting change in organizations work a bit differently as it includes random elements, selection of efficient forms of inertia, and change over the time. The only thing that is constant is change itself whilst, everything is changing with minor and major variations. Management account in a context of instutional cumulative causality where management accounting behavior is swayed by rules, institutions and routines etc. accounting rules are to be coupled with various management accounting methods and mechanisms. For instance, performance measurement, costing and budgeting. In synthesis, procedural requirement of any model never change.


Herewith, accounting fundamentals never spell against the human particular behavior in the context of management accounting. Extensive practices of decided rules take accountants to adopt it in their working as a routine. Herewith, routines used to be actually deemed the way of happening thing in the appropriate way. Routines are a form of collective habit. Routines have supposition to be repeated in chronological patters that are often consisting of tacit knowledge. Thus, routines cause to be repeated reflexively by an actor with his behavioral practices. Routines and procedural rules have interred connection with each other. Rules become routines in management accounting discipline. On other side of the flip, routines some times become rules of work. In addition to it, taken-for-granted assumptions put loads of light on human actor and the way as to how he used to be influenced.


On other hand, institutions and human behavior are two different conceptions. Institutions often make necessary alterations in human behavior. On contrary, human actor adhere with strong act may reshape institution as well. Evolutionary theory is vial for searching routines as with the identification of unprofitable activities that is merely used in initiating make-buy decision in organizations.  (Tobias Johansson, sven siverbo (2009)





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How to write a literature review for a dissertation?



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Design Management Dissertation Writing Help



The ethnic minorities could use the various features of design management to create original and striking trademarks to help themselves familiarize with the customers. The professional look to this practice is immensely important so that the customers see potential in the businesses of ethnic minorities.


In order to create consistent marketing ploys the ethnic minorities should use the marketing techniques in consistence with the design of their respective businesses. They should gather insight knowledge about their customer markets to know more about their customer base so that they could fabricate better marketing campaigns to cater to their customers better (Macmillan. Gushue, G.V. ,2006: 68)


By carefully analyzing the various features of design management the ethnic minorities could develop core competencies which would allow them to bring out fresh and innovative ideas and products to the market in order to create an image of a brand which is innovative. This would boost the image of the business as well as help to expand the market size. This would definitely help in improving the performance of the business.


Design plays a fundamental role in the development of a product and brand as a whole. In order to create competitive advantage creativity is needed design management paves way for creativity. The ethnic minorities could capitalize on this fact and improve the productivity of their businesses (http://www.mdx.ac.uk/Assets/Ethnic_Min_Bus_Commu.pdf https://anitagrant.com/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=shop.flypage&product_id=112&category_id=24&option=com_phpshop&Itemid=41).


The most important economies of the world are focusing on the design management to help their economies grow. The U.K government has been helping the ethnic minorities to adopt better strategies and marketing ploys to help them grow (http://www.ethnos.co.uk/#/ethnic-market-opportunities/4544547770).


The government has realized the potential of design to create competition among the local businesses including the businesses of ethnic minorities. The government has taken pragmatic steps to ensure that the businesses of ethnic minorities in inner cities prosper through design management. These small businesses have immense potential to not only grow but to contribute to the economy as a whole.


The businesses of ethnic minorities could use design to better design their policies regarding innovation. They could also use design to improve the policies of communication of the business. (http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/business-development/accelerator/growth/ice.cfm). This would help the businesses of ethnic minorities become efficient and more innovative. By improving the communication policies through design the businesses would be better able to respond to the ever changing needs of the customer base.


The investment in design management practices is not in vein. The benefits which are brought on by adopting design management, more than offset the investment and help the businesses to become global, which is of importance in today’s global economy. The ethnic minorities should not hesitate to invest in design management practices and must keep in view the benefits which are related to the incorporation of design management into their businesses.


Those businesses of ethnic minorities which are struggling in the inner cities and need to restructure their businesses can especially benefit from the design management. Design management enables businesses to restructure themselves in an efficient and effective way so that the businesses turn out to be successful and productive (https://intranet.londonmet.ac.uk/studentservices/careers/student-enterprise/useful-websites.cfm).


A research shows that those companies which incorporate design tend to grow faster than those which don’t consider design management. The ethnic minorities’ businesses should take a cue from this important research finding and use design in their firms to help their businesses grow and achieve their potential.


Design management has one another inherent benefit in the fact that it is internal and thus it can be used as a secret recipe for a business’ growth. Thus the ethnic minorities can also utilize design and reap the benefits without others knowing the underlying secrets to success. This would immensely help businesses of ethnic minorities in the inner cities.

References:


Barot, R., Bradley, H. and Fenton, S. (1999) `Rethinking Ethnicity and Gender””, in R. Barot et al. (eds) Ethnicity, Gender and Social Change, pp. 1-25.


(http://www.ethnos.co.uk/#/ethnic-market-opportunities/4544547770)


(http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/mar/17/david-cameron-support-black-entrepreneurs).


(http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/business-development/accelerator/growth/ice.cfm)


Basingstoke: Macmillan havnani, R. (2006) `Ahead of the Game: The Changing Aspirations of Young Ethnic Minority Women””, in Equal Opportunities Commission, Moving on up?


Basingstoke : Macmillan. Gushue, G.V. (2006) `The Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Career, Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations among Latino/a High School Students”” , Journal of Vocational Behavior 68(1): 85-95


(http://www.mdx.ac.uk/Assets/Ethnic_Min_Bus_Commu.pdfhttps://anitagrant.com/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=shop.flypage&product_id=112&category_id=24&option=com_phpshop&Itemid=41).


(https://intranet.londonmet.ac.uk/studentservices/careers/student-enterprise/useful-websites.cfm).




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