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Structure of the report



The research report will incorporate certain chapters and these the description of these chapters are listed below:


Introduction
This chapter will incorporate the basic marketing terminologies that are related with this research and it would also include the background of the research. In the similar manner it can also be said that this section set up the scene for the dissertation and gives the general context that is used during the whole discussion.


Literature Review
This chapter would focus on the literature analysis that is closely related with Tesco and other small retail outlets operating in United Kingdom. Emphasis is laid on the marketing strategies and terminologies that are closely related with the aspect of marketing. This chapter will incorporate the secondary sources and these secondary sources will give abundant knowledge so that the hypothesis can be accepted or rejected.


Research Methodology
Emphasis is laid on this chapter because this chapter will discuss that what research strategy will be used to carry out the research. This chapter will focus on different areas of research and incorporate the benefits and limitations of the research. In the similar manner the primary research analysis is also incorporated in this research.


Findings and Analysis
This chapter would focuses on the results and the findings of the research. The findings would primarily focus on the secondary and primary sources. In the similar manner it can also be said that empirical findings and results are actually analyzed in this section.
Conclusion and recommendations


This will be the final chapter of the dissertation this section presents the conclusion of the entire thesis and recommendations following references and bibliography, appendix, abbreviations used in this report.





The Malaysian Operation



The plan of developing market share for goods external to the usual supermarket arena has resulted in Tesco excedding Sainsbury’s to become the biggest supermarket in the UK, and it now holds over a quarter of the market (Strategic Direction, 2005). In 2008, Tesco began to offer its first in-store order-and-collect service as it tries to compete with Argos, the current leader the catalogue sector. The new service was evaluated at Tesco’s Cribbs Causeway store (which is utilized as a laboratory store for testing new products and services) and has since been extended to other locations as well. Tesco has also begun to offer a collection of software products for home or office use that competes directly with offerings from Microsoft. Tesco Complete Office comprises two security/antivirus products, a personal finance program, a DVD-writing tool, and a photo-editing application and is sold for less than £20 compared to Microsoft Office 2007 which sells for £45.


Tesco has in the recent past begun to offer the ‘Discounter’ product range to be able to compete with the supposed threat of Aldi and Lidl. The discount supermarket sector has benefited from recent economic havoc as increasing food costs have brought more people to their stores. 80% of Tesco’s sales come from regions in which Aldi and Lidl are not to be found. Commercial director Richard Brasher recognizes the “centre of gravity in the marketplace” has shifted (Ritson, 2008). The test in the future is to stay away from the problem of becoming stuck in the centre of the market when consumers are trading down. However, it might be argued that fighter brands produced to cater to a specific competitor tend to fail as they take over the owner’s higher-priced products instead of taking share from their intended target. Of course it is uncertain how successful this product range has been at stopping customer switching away. In the past three months, £22m of spending shifted from Tesco to Asda, with another £10m moving to Morrisons (Wearden, 2008).


Tesco has also recently carried out substantial social marketing initiatives, such as the opening of a flagship environmentally friendly supermarket in Wick, which has wind turbines, a mechanism to collect and use rainwater, energy-saving cooling and cooking equipment and low-energy lighting. The store is made to produce half the ‘carbon footprint’ of comparable sized traditional supermarket. Examining the value in environmentally conscious initiatives can decrease costs and make customers happy. However, as Tesco tries to form a name as a solidly price-conscious retailer the choice to chase green initiatives may send out confusing messages and this strategy should be investigated when the majority of its customers are lower middle to middle class and are altering their concerns in the current economic situation.


There are three aspects that guide Tesco’s strategic behaviour with regardi to internationalisation. First, purchasing successful companies is key to their scheme of overseas expansion, with greater progress into growing markets from the 1990s onwards. Tesco entered Asia in 1998 with the buying of a majority stake in Lotus hypermarkets in Thailand, and more developed operations in the area when they entered Malaysia in 2002, Japan in 2003 and China in 2004. The Malaysian operation was set up as a joint venture with a local company Sime Darby Behad. Tesco owns 70% of the shares, but the concernis under local control. In China, Tesco entered a similar contract with Shanghai Hymall. Tesco purchased into successful companies with local operational knowhow and set up market share and its expansion strategy hope for eventual market domination.


The second aspect relates to market selection. Tesco opted to enter into markets (Eastern Europe and South East Asia) where local competition was malleable, away from other increasing giants such as Wal-Mart. Tesco also adapted to opportune events, and took on different entry modes in order to create knowledge.




Planning policy



Even though it is possible that small retailers that compete directly with large retailers will confront very hard conditions when a large retailer come into their area, because of the expenses and brand advantages of large retailers, it is possible that other small retailers in the area may profit, with respect to enhanced sales, due to enhanced footfall caused by the large retailer. This means that it has been contended that when a large retailer comes into an area it brings with it a greater level of footfall to the location. Other retailers in the neighbourhood of the large retailer will profit from this increased footfall because of increased sales.


On the other hand, another consequence of this increased footfall is possible to be higher rents – as more retailers see the location as feasible enabling landlords to raise rents. For this reason, other small retailers in the location that do not compete directly with the large retailer may find circumstances harder if their sales, which will profit from the increased footfall, are not enough to cover the higher rental, which also is a consequence of the increased footfall. All the same, even though the entry of a large retailer to an area may have an effect on a number of retailers in the location– both because of direct competition as well as through their impact on rental levels – it is possible that other retailers will come in as a consequence of the greater footfall thus preserving retail (even though not the same retail as previously) in the location.


Some have contended that this alteration in the organization of the High Street should be opposed, stating that small retailers offer variety of choice for consumers, supply goods and services that might not if not be offered by the large retailers and usually result in a more socially agreeable environment. Despite this, proof that small retailers do result in about such an environment is not strong. Indeed, it can equally be stated that if there is a demand for a specific good or service then the large retailers will acknowledge the consumer demand and cater to it; that is having small retailers is not a compulsory stipulation for offering diversity and choice in goods or services. Apart from in the case of retailers that offer very specialised goods or services, it is possible that large retailers will typically offer goods and services wherever there is enough consumer demand for them.


Planning policy
One cause for large retailers entering into high street locations could be the consequence of changes to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister’s planning policy in the shape of Planning Policy Guidance 6 (PPG6) Town centres and retail developments, in 1996. The main provision of PPG6 included:


• A focus on a plan-led approach to leading development in town centres
• A focus on the chronological method for selecting sites for development
• Backing for local centres.


A revised Planning Policy Statement (PPS6), which replaces PPG6, was in print in early 2005. Roughly speaking it keeps the focus on in-town development.


Changes in consumer demand patters
In addition to planning policy, alterations in consumer demand may have led to the rise in the number of small format stores of the large retailers. For example it could be contended that in recent years while consumers’ disposable income has risen, the amount of time that they have for shopping has decreased. These alterations may have led to a rise in demand for longer operatng hours and increased convenience both with respect to location (therefore more high street stores) and with respect to the goods that are wanted (for example more ready-prepared foods).


The large grocery retailers have modified according to the fluctuations in consumer demand patterns by offering ‘fresh and chilled’ food and by increasing their opening hours, with some offering 24-hour operating times. Besides this, many stores of the large grocery retailers (including large and small stores) are now operative on a Sunday, subsequent to the easing of the Sunday Trading Laws. This is a noteworthy issue for small retailers because in the past, longer operating hours tended to act as a comparative edge for small retailers over large retailers. As more large retailers utilize longer operating hours this comparative edge is eaten away. Certainly there is proof in the literature to imply that small retailers have observed a reduction in their earnings since the move towards Sunday Trading. The London Chamber of Commerce in its investigation of the independent retail industry set up that just over 80 per cent of respondents to their survey (of small retailers) said that the letting of Sunday Trading Laws had led to a reduction in their revenues.


Small retailers have also discovered that it is harder to modify according to these changes in consumer demand patters. Part of the cause for this is due to the expense involved in adapting to the changes. For instance, in comparative terms, it is more costly for small retailers to stay open for longer hours than it is for large retailers. The logic for this is that large retailers are apt to have some staff working 24 hours a day (for instance people stocking shelves) and for this reason it does not raise their costs by the same proportion to stay open longer.
In addition in many cases small retailers will not have the floor space needed to offer ‘fresh and chilled’ foods or other products demanded as a consequence of changes in consumer behaviour. In addition, in instances where floor space is not a problem small retailers may find it difficult to obtain the capital to make the required changes to their store to be able to adapt to consumer demand, for example for buying the fridges and cabinets required for ‘fresh and chilled’ foods.


It can be deduced that competition from large retailers, specially in the grocery sector, has affected greatly small retailers. Probably most significantly, the greater buyer clout that the scale of large retailers delivers enables them to be much more competitive in terms of price (in their large or small format stores) as opposed to small independent retailers. The trend of the large, particularly grocery, retailers towards offering a greater range of goods and services in addition to small format stores in high street locations will raise the competition that many small retailers have to face. As a consequence of these changes and other elements such as alterations in operating hours for example a tremendous amount of small retailers’ former comparative edge in terms of convenience has been eroded.




Religion and cultural differences



Religion and cultural differences can also mess up a progress of one’s health when in hospital. For instance, Tabrizi does not want to take the hospital’s food because he not sure if the food has pork or not. His religion does not allow him to eat pork or pork products, so, he feels it is safe not to eat the food at all. Mr. Tabrizi still refuses to eat despite the fact that the chief nurse urges him to do so for his own health. This serious problem affects many patients in hospitals. Another example is that it may be difficult for a female Muslim to disrobe in the presence of a male doctor, even if it is necessary.


In addition, some African beliefs and cultures do not allow making eye contact or even questioning an authority person, it is disrespectful; yet, a doctor just needs a confirmation from a patient through eye contact or questioning. A part from poor quality and unsafe treatment, miscommunication and cultural differences can lead to some problems. One of these problems is that the cost of health care can go up because of miscommunication and cultural differences.


For example, if a patient does not understand the doctor’s language, or understands very little, the doctor may need to do more tests to come up with diagnosis. All the tests need money; therefore, the patient will have to pay more than the one who communicates effectively, since an effective communication will lead to a faster diagnosis (Lindh & Pooler, 2009).




To label one or action as “selfless”



To many people the label altruist is likely to solve some difficult mental problem to them. Their definition of altruism is denying ones self for higher good; yet sometimes they do not imagine any person willingly sacrificing all those things that include their conception for the self for some greater cause. After all people with self-interested respect does not willingly give that self respect for anything else. Now how then can a person give accord to the actions that seems to have altruism? To label one or action as “selfless” or “altruistic” will answer this conundrum.


Altruism here is viewed as a character trait while selflessness is seen something that comes easily to somebody because that is part of how he or she work and others does not necessarily posses that same character trait. Some people having explained altruistic actions of others in terms of traits which seemingly they don’t have, need not to speculate further why altruists are motivated to do selfless acts.


This makes those people to fend off some uneasy questions which are of their personal moral duty in relation to altruist’s perceived actions. Therefore polarizing altruism and selfishness to be a personal trait can enable individuals to avoid their moral actions responsibility. Polarity between altruism and self interest will provide a rationalization for failing to be altruistic: because it is viewed as very immense, too much of a sacrifice. This explains apathy and moral laxity towards the problems facing the world.




Self-interest based in moral theory



Usually people do things of higher cause that they feel are so identical to their self-identity. They undertake risks on things that negate their self concern. Everything they do is meaningful to development and more so actualization of self identity. They would rather work on their ability to perspective-take so as to maintain their identity on the individuals they are doing well to; rather than work to deliver good on people which they can’t identify with. Self-interest should not be defined to include only the need for bodily material but should include anything that a person’s personal view to be necessary for his or her meaningful existence. Given that everybody has different conception of what their meaningful existence depend on, hence making conception about self-interest to vary tremendously between different individuals.


Self-interest and identity conceptions are not personally speculated; quite a number of researchers and many theorists have supported the belief that a person’s self-sense exceed just the need for physical body. For example psychologists Susanne Cook-Greuter, Jane Loevinger, Carol Gilligan all present detailed research showing that an individual conception grows with time. Moreover these development researches also show that person’s self-identity growth is directional. Thus people grow in experience and also self-identity all through their life; theoretically they should always be seen as being in their own self-interest, acts that other people may view as being selfless and altruistic.


Philosopher Jeffrey Reiman looks at the concept of self-identification in the moral realm. These can make one to say that increased exposure to other people and different other perspectives makes an individual to increase his or moral capacity. However the difference that exists between self interest and altruism is too all entrenched and is unnecessarily limiting of conception about moral behavior by persistently linking moral action to unnatural self-sacrifice of any sort. There altruism even in animals inform of one animal risking or sacrificing its life for the survival of the other animal. For example the research done on animals by researchers such as Hamilton where bees sacrifices themselves in order to allow the queen to produce off-spring are explaining altruism.




Adults presence in Thames valley police



Thames valley police is an organization operating in the fringes of the city of London which has a total of around six thousand police officers and support staff, covering an area populated by approximately two million people (Thames Valley Police, 2010). For a long time before this program was initiated juvenile delinquency was a major problem. In England young offender are defined as those aged 17 years and under (Morris, & Maxwell, 2001).


Due to the seriousness attached to the problem of young offenders in any society, especially due to the fact that every habitual offender almost always starts committing crime in childhood. This therefore means that if they can be “caught early” the level of crime in that particular society will be drastically reduced (Morris, & Maxwell, 2001). This is precisely the reason that kick-started Thames valley police in acting on the problem as a matter of urgency, a decision that gave birth to the program on the same (Thames Valley Police, 2010).


Adults presence in this case was grounded on the fact that the earlier the risk factors in young people that are likely to push them in crime are identified the more you are likely to halt their descent to criminal enterprises, and the earlier you can stop this altogether before these habits have reached certain levels or become fully instilled, the better the chances one has of keeping these children from crime and subsequently improving their life (Lozoff, 2010). In this regard some of the risk factors that were identified included illiteracy and innumeracy, criminal peer pressure, and arbitrary parental discipline (Thames Valley Police, 2010).


Since the 1970s, police in England have been dealing on youngster caught committing criminal acts on a “telling off” in the first two to three times that they have been caught (Kilkelly, 2006). This treatment has been premised on the need to obviate the likelihood of tarnishing their criminal record at such a tender age (Kilkelly, 2006). One of the things about this method that informed the decision to look for a more effective way of dealing with this menace was the realization that the traditional methods were untested and superficial thereby making them impotent in effectively dealing with young offenders. This program was therefore driven by the need to engage the youths more powerfully from committing crime and sliding into full time criminality in the following years.


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John Locke



Kant, like Aristotle uses a maxim to bring out the importance and essence of ethics Kant. Given the above maxim made by Kant, it is easy to see that to him, the most important concept that used to appraise an action carried out by an individual as either good or bad, is the will. This is to say that to Kant, an action may be deemed bad, in extrinsic terms, but a careful look at the intrinsic underpinnings may justify the action that has been carried out.


John Locke


He performed his duties as a philosopher between August 29th, 1632 and October 28th, 1704. He did not only make contributions touching on political philosophy, but also made cogent contributions towards ethics as moral philosophy. As a matter of fact, Locke’s concept of ethics is considered in social sciences as the Father of Liberalism (Dunn) . According to Tully, Locke’s viewpoint on ethics is found on intergenerational obligation and stewardship. To Locke, the system of intergenerational ethics is based on five factors: the need to preserve human species; the need to prevent any possible destruction or wastage of creation; the need to treat the earth as opposed to owners the need to leave behind, what is enough and good for other people; and the need to respect and preserve every generation’s right to chart its own destiny by making its own political choices. This means that John Locke’s arguments on ethics are merely geared towards ensuring that there is intergenerational social justice and harmony (Tully) .


The preservation of the human species is the primary concern of Locke in ethics. To him, all ethical standards and fundamentals of all natural laws are ancillary to the need to act towards the realization of the preservation of species. Locke adheres closely to Biblical notion that the earth is given for mankind as a form of intergenerational commons and cites King David’s point that, “God gave the world to Adam and to his posterity in common.” To this effect, the chief obligation of mankind as the tenant is to maintain the property or an asset in as good state as it was, primordially. To Locke, therefore, as a tenant, every individual must be guided by the ethics that will safeguard the earth for both God and the tenant-generations that are to come.


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