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Cost of Equity: Paper Writing Samples



In financial hypothesis, the return that stockholders want for a firm/company is known as cost of equity. The basic formula to calculate the cost of equity is based on dividend capitalization model that is:

A firm’s cost of equity characterizes the return that the market necessitates in trade for owning the assets and bearing the risk of possession. Two methods can be used to find out the cost of equity. Two widely used methods to determine the cost of equity is Dividend growth model and security market line approach.

Cost of Debt
Debt elements of capital might include numerous line items i.e. loans from numerous financial organizations with different terms and costs and preferred stock. Some of the loans might have floating or fixed interest rate. The more other components of debt are bonds and leases. The efficient rate that a firm disburses on its present debt can be determined prior to or after the tax returns as the interest cost is deductible. A firm uses numerous loans, bonds and other kinds of debt so this measure is helpful for providing an idea as to the largely rate being salaried by the firm to utilize the debt money. This measure or technique can also enrich the investor with the idea about the risk ness of the firm as related to others as the riskier firms have higher cost of debt.

To calculate the cost of debt, first the firms needs to calculate the individual cost of each element of debt than calculate the weighted average cost of capital. For example, if there are seven bonds issues than 1st, we will calculate the cost of each individual bond than will move towards calculating the weighted average cost of capital to find the overall cost of debt.


Weighted Average Cost of Capital
WACC is the rate that a firm anticipated to pay on standard to all of its shareholders to finance their assets. A firm’s resources are funded by the use of debt or equity and the WACC is the average cost of these two resources of funding, each one is weighted by its individual utilization. By calculating the WACC, a firm can evaluate that how much interest the firm has to compensate for each dollar it finance.

As a whole, WACC is overall required return on the firm and it is also exercised inside the firm to decide the financial viability of expansionary openings and amalgamations. The general formula for calculating the WACC is:


CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model)
The resources returns depends on the sum compensated for the asset at present. The cost paid should guarantee that the market collection risk and return distinctiveness progress when the asset is putted to it. The CAPM (Capital asset pricing model) is a model which forces the hypothetical compulsory return for an asset in marketplace, specified the risk free rate presented to the shareholders and the risk of marketplace as a total. The general formula to calculate the CAPM is:

CAPM is also a desired model that is used to compute the cost of equity.



Firm’s financial mix
Investment choices depend upon the cost of capital. Capital is collected to grant money services that are key input for the productive process. Capital for a firm comprises of reasonable ratio of debt and equity which is also called financial mix.

Financial mix is a name used in the business world to describe a combination of debt to equity in a firm. This term is use to explain the formula that describes how much investment is being lifted by the debt and how a lot is being lifted by the equity. Financial firms believe that financial mix have an important impact on rising or lessening the worth of a firm. Debt financing is basically a money advance of cash that must have to be pay back, usually with an interest form on crest and equity, on the other side, is financing policy that is obtained from shareholders of the firm and does not essentially have to be paid back, though shareholders will usually be expecting a level of required return for their assets.

Conclusion
The cost of capital has strapping consequences for the firms that makes investments and it can be manipulated by the financial resources. This research paper discusses the cost of capital and its various components to find out weighted average cost of capital of a firm. The sum of all components of cost of capital like cost of debt and cost of equity brings WACC of the firm that is overall required rate of return on firm’s financial assets. Financial mix describes the ratio of debt to equity of a firm and has significant impacts on the overall worth of the firm.

References


Ross, A Stephen. (1977). The Capital asset pricing model (CAPM), Short sale restrictions and related issues, Journal of Finance, 32 (177)


Pastor, L. & Stambaugh, R. F. (1999). Costs of Equity Capital and Model Mispricing: American Finance Association. Journal of Finance, 54(1), 67-121.


Fama, E. F. & French, K.R. (1999). The Corporate cost of capital and the return on corporate investment: American Finance Association. Journal of Finance, 54(6), 1939-1967.


Van Horne & Wachowicz. (2004). Fundamentals of financial management. New York: Prentice Hall Publishers.


Richard, Brealey & Stewart. (1991). Principles of corporate finance, 4th Edition: New York, McGraw Hill Publishers.




Tesco: An Overview



Researchers and strategists actually claim that Tesco actually works on the principle of aggressive marketing techniques that are applicable in both the short and the long run. It is the strategy of Tesco that have actually made Tesco the best retailer in the world. Their retail strategy is quite distinct with other retailers. Tesco is considered as a champion retailer and they have shown greater energy and responsiveness to certain volatile marker places and that is the reason why different retailers and have felt this pressure of the champion. Their strategy is actually the core power of this mega brand. The main strategy of Tesco is that they focus on scenario of customers and that is the reason why they have excelled in both the short and the long run. They also work with the simple strategy that is what you actually see in the shops is what you exactly get in the stores (Heller 2005).


Marketing Strategy at Tesco
The market orientation is one of the greatest factors in the development of the strategy and the management of Tesco plays an important role and their philosophies is based on the scenario that no one tries harder for customers and treat people how we like to be treated. The values of this organisation are actually created because of the internal marketing strategy of this organisation and this also includes the distribution of newspaper to the employees (Anthony 2008). Different schemes of this organisation are viable in both the short and the long run and the employees kept in their mind that they are working for the biggest retailer that is the reason why the strategies that are created should be viable in both the short and the long run. The staff of this organisation is briefed about the importance of Clubcard and that is the reason why internal launch was initiated with the internal marketing (Humby and Phillips 2004).


Purpose of this research
The entire research is focused on the scenario that what is the actual impact of Tesco Marketing Strategies on small retail outlets that are operating in the United Kingdom. In the similar manner emphasis is laid on the scenario that how these small retail businesses adopt strategies in order to face the mammoth marketing strategies of retail giant Tesco. Emphasis is laid on the core marketing strategies of both Tesco and several small retail outlets. The research is based on qualitative analysis and the strategy of questionnaire is used extensively to check the hypothesis. In the similar manner it can be said that the core purpose of this research report is to identify the marketing and strategies decisions that are taken by Tesco and other organisations. However, it can be said that the core aim of this research is based on the scenario that what are the short and the long term effects of the 4P’s of Tesco on other small retailers in north London UK.


Scope of the research
The scope of the research is limited towards the marketing strategies of Tesco and certain other small retail outlets that are operating in the United Kingdom. In order to evaluate their effectiveness emphasis is laid on the secondary research and that s the reason why it can be said that emphasis is laid on the secondary research and qualitative data is analysed in this research. It can also be said that in order to check the effectiveness of this research this research will incorporate the primary data and responses of retailers will be analysed. However, it can also be said that the scope of this research is limited to North London UK.


Research Questions
There are certain research questions that are be analysed in the dissertation and these research questions are answered in the findings and analysis chapter of this dissertation. The research questions are listed below:


1. What are the effects of Tesco’s price marketing strategy on small retail businesses that are operating in North London?
2. What are the effects of Tesco’s product marketing strategy on small retail business that are operating in North London?

3. What are the effects of Tesco’s promotional marketing strategy on small retail business that is operating in North London?
4. What are the effects of Tesco’s Place marketing strategy on small retail business that is operating in North London?


Hypothesis of the research
The hypothesis of the research is Tesco’s marketing strategy is creating difficulties for small retailers of United Kingdom and they are unable to target the customers in an effective and an efficient way. The hypothesis will be tested through both secondary and primary researches and through proper research the hypothesis will either be accepted or rejected.




Adults presence in Thames valley police



Thames valley police is an organization operating in the fringes of the city of London which has a total of around six thousand police officers and support staff, covering an area populated by approximately two million people (Thames Valley Police, 2010). For a long time before this program was initiated juvenile delinquency was a major problem. In England young offender are defined as those aged 17 years and under (Morris, & Maxwell, 2001).


Due to the seriousness attached to the problem of young offenders in any society, especially due to the fact that every habitual offender almost always starts committing crime in childhood. This therefore means that if they can be “caught early” the level of crime in that particular society will be drastically reduced (Morris, & Maxwell, 2001). This is precisely the reason that kick-started Thames valley police in acting on the problem as a matter of urgency, a decision that gave birth to the program on the same (Thames Valley Police, 2010).


Adults presence in this case was grounded on the fact that the earlier the risk factors in young people that are likely to push them in crime are identified the more you are likely to halt their descent to criminal enterprises, and the earlier you can stop this altogether before these habits have reached certain levels or become fully instilled, the better the chances one has of keeping these children from crime and subsequently improving their life (Lozoff, 2010). In this regard some of the risk factors that were identified included illiteracy and innumeracy, criminal peer pressure, and arbitrary parental discipline (Thames Valley Police, 2010).


Since the 1970s, police in England have been dealing on youngster caught committing criminal acts on a “telling off” in the first two to three times that they have been caught (Kilkelly, 2006). This treatment has been premised on the need to obviate the likelihood of tarnishing their criminal record at such a tender age (Kilkelly, 2006). One of the things about this method that informed the decision to look for a more effective way of dealing with this menace was the realization that the traditional methods were untested and superficial thereby making them impotent in effectively dealing with young offenders. This program was therefore driven by the need to engage the youths more powerfully from committing crime and sliding into full time criminality in the following years.


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CHAPTER TWO 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW



The Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) 1984, the Mental Health Act 1983 (as amended by the Mental Health Act 2007) vividly recommends the availability of an adult during the trial of a child to ensure a fair trial for the child. This is due to the perceived undue influence that may be imposed on the child by other interested parties in the given case, for instance, lawyers. For instance in the case of Leach v Chief Constable of Gloucestershire Constabulary, Negligence – Duty of care – Police – Plaintiff acting as appropriate adult – Plaintiff claiming damages against police for psychological injury – Whether police owing duty of care to plaintiff – Codes of Practice under Code C. Or may give information that is unreliable to the officers which may later impact negatively on admissibility of evidence in a court proceeding.


Blumberg, A. (2009). Criminal Justice System: Issues and Ironies. New York: SAGE.


This book remains important in this work, given that it takes to analyze the dynamics of the criminal justice system. Most of the dynamics are those that are not usually anticipated; rotating on the loopholes that exist in the legal structures. Some of the legal technicalities such as what constitutes solid evidence are spelt out, in respect to the book. It advocated for the presence of an adult during the trial of a legal victim, witness, plaintiff or accused who is considered mentally unstable. The author stresses on the fact that the “mentally unstable” might give information that is unreliable to the police or may give information that end up incriminating themselves. It is therefore critical to have an adult during the questioning of the child. The book has been published by the Sage publishing company in New York.
Galaway, B. (2006). Adults presence: International Perspectives. New York: Prentice Hall.


This book by Galaway was published in New York, by the Prentice Hall Publishing Company. The main intent of the book is to address different perspectives that are extant, the world over, concerning adults presence. The importance of this book towards this study is to show that despite the fact that adults presence is seen as a weak alternative to the criminal justice system, the dynamics and loopholes in the world’s legal systems remain visible, calling for the need to embrace adults presence universally. This will include allowing for an adult presence during the questioning of child.


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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK



Though theoretical, the absence of an appropriate adult during the initial questioning stage might lead to wrong conviction of a suspect or even witness. Mark, 2006, restorative justice looks at the concept of allowing adults presence in a trial of a mentally vulnerable persons or children for that matter. He tries to dissect the implications that the absence of an adult would have or mean for a case involving a mentally vulnerable individual.


The main concern in Mark’s book is the way in which mentally vulnerable criminals with cases of mental vulnerability are viewed by the police. The author describes evidently why such mentally vulnerable criminals deserve more recognition and in the police custody as opposed to what is accorded to them. In most cases these mentally vulnerable criminals also referred to as remedial, basic and/ or poor mentally vulnerable criminals due to the limited opportunity and narrow understanding in them and not because of insufficient skills and intelligence. Social and economic forces have a profound influence on the performance and intelligence of mentally vulnerable mentally vulnerable criminals. According to Rose, the contemporary method of assessing and learning are misused and short sighted especially when dealing with mentally vulnerable criminal.


In relation to the author’s argument, it is evident from my own experience in some criminal cases. The police in some cases do not recognize, leave alone appreciate the presence and according assistance to the mentally vulnerable mentally vulnerable criminals. In most cases, mentally vulnerable criminals have failed to understand what they are questioned in the cells and ended up implicating themselves during the questioning Some give unreliable witness accounts which may eventually lead to false implication of a given suspect. Even a mentally convenient criminal would not perform well if he/she is undergoing through domestic stress in the family, this has failed many mentally vulnerable mentally vulnerable criminals in most courts.


When the mentally vulnerable persons are being questioned, especially when they are having other pressing problems they tend to have fear within them. a factor which makes them agree with most of the police’s implications and during court proceedings, they are likely to articulate to a lawyers advantage leading to inaccurate ratio dacidendi. As the author illustrates, the mentally vulnerable mentally vulnerable criminals require an adult’s presence during the questioning to enable for the provision of accurate information in a given case. Due to these arising situations due to the lack of an appropriate adult, Ross provides the best avenue for assistance by bringing in the appropriate adults to help the mentally vulnerable mentally vulnerable criminals or witnesses. The justice system is based on how mentally vulnerable criminals and the adult’s presence introduced to the police for questioning usually impacts on the less mentally vulnerable criminals who needs more attention in order to provide reliable information in the particular case. “More often than not we admit, an absence of an adult is social more than intellectual in origin” (225), this is directly linked with the nature of questioning and testing experience in that most mentally vulnerable criminals retain mental incapacities and hence are not solely reliable for the information they provide to assist in investigation of a particular case. They are often blamed for such mistakes which evidently result from their cultural and social backgrounds.

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The Art of Research Paper Proposal Writing In A Research Paper Help Guide



In writing a research paper the first thing to get started with the research process is the research paper proposal. This part of research papers actually exhibits the background, investigation and conclusion of your research papers writing. To get the ball rolling the thesis statement has to be presented in your research paper proposal which will be further defended by sound arguments and valid and reasonable evidences.


The research papers proposal should be make a clear point in two most important aspects. Your research papers proposal must have a valid and logical thesis statement and the purpose of preparing this research paper shall not fictitious and the problem should exist in real. Along with such convincing proves and reasoning, you should be able to assure the reader that you are perfectly capable of resolving the posed thesis question in your research paper writing. Secondly your college research papers proposal should discuss the previous essential researches on your proposed research papers topic and it should clearly specify that how is your research paper writing different from the previous researches done? The most important part of writing a research paper is to prove that your research papers are exclusive and your research paper is evaluating the research paper thesis statement with a different view point.


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