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Cost of Capital: Paper Writing Sample



Abstract
This research paper discuss the cost of capital and its various components i.e. cots of debt and cost of equity in order to calculate the weighted average cost of capital that is overall required return on the firm financing assets. Moreover, financial mix (debt and equity) is also discussed to know the firm’s financing policies through debt and equity. The rationale of this examine paper is to talk about the cost of capital and its different elements.

Introduction
The cost of capital is possibly the most essential and extensively used idea in theory of finance. A key imminent from finance hypothesis is that, at all, the utilization of capital inflicts an opportunity cost on shareholders, specifically; finances are abstracted from receiving a return on the subsequent best similar risk speculation. As the investors have admittance to financial marketplace opportunities thus the firm’s utilization of investment should be benchmarked beside these investment market choices. The cost of capital better offers this benchmark. The cost of capital term is used in the area of financial investment to convey to the cost of a firm finances i.e. equity and debt. This method is used to assess the fresh projects of a firm because it is the minimum return that stockholders expect for supplying funds for the firm. The rationale of this examine paper is to talk about the cost of capital and its different elements.


Cost of Capital
The cost of capital finds out that how a firm can raise money i.e. through borrowing, issuing a stock or a mix of these two. Cost of capital is a rate of return that a firm would obtain if it invests its financial resources like money somewhere else with related risk. Cost of capital would comprise cost of debt and cost of equity.


Capital structure of a firm can comprises of preferred stocks, ordinary shares, short term and long term loans, bonds and leases etc. These whole fundamentals of capital formation have their individual price and if we include all the costs of each element after adjusting with weight age of each element, the consequential value is called WACC (weighted average cost of capital). WACC is minimum return that a firm earns on all of its existing components of capital structure to satisfy its owners, creditors or others who provide finance for the firm operations. WACC is an important element firms use if the asset plans accessible to them are valuable to take on or not. To calculate the WACC, first firms needs to calculate the individual costs of each element in capital structure. Let discuss them one by one.




Darwinism of Dissertation Writing



Darwan set the parameters of institutionalism, and process oriented mechanism. However, a pre-settled connection has been notified among evolutionary theory and Dawanism. He was the creating mind behind theory of evolutionary for specifies. Furthermore, theory of evolutionary is to be in the hands of different philosopher of different time periods. They all added fruitful contribution with respect to their own observation. Evolutionary theory doesn’t refer change essential for seeing lucrative developments. Changes are processes influenced by traits, hereditary, selection and variation etc. second skepticism about evolutionary theory is that it has been associated along the far reaching doctrine of laissez faire. Hence, this theory has made a direct link with liberalism and conservative. Darwinism has merely distinctive characteristics as of actor network theory. From social science views, it is important to realize that Darwinism isn’t an alternative to a detailed explanation of social phenomena. Management accounting change is some how guided by Darwinism, but some of refinements are still required.


Actor network theory:


Actor network theory belongs to esthetic management accounting innovations. Herewith, better understanding is required in order to be well informed about accounting change. Therewith, changes made by using fundamentals of actor network theory have been noticed in Georges Perrin method, and activity based costing. Hence, there are three different ways for determining the worth of organizational change. For instance, diffusion of innovation, innovation agents, and time frame etc. actor network theory pays minute attention on to change process. As far as accounting change is concerned, it is non linear within which success or failure of technology can never be projected along given social factors list. Therewith, success and failure are either due to social achievements of different human or non human actors. People who believe in innovations are called innovators. (Simon alcoffe. Nicolas Berland, Yves Levant (2008)


Accounting system & control:


When the word system come thence accounting systems is found with constitutional organizational routines and rules. Institutional economics frame the change as ongoing relationship amid institutions and actors. Conventional wisdom sketches management accounting change in terms of big source of information particularly for management planning and controlling. Herewith, evolutionary theory is evidently found for developing a framework for conceptualizing management accounting change. This theory is felt oblige for fascinating to rule based behavior and routine organizational systems and practices. Therewith, management accounting change is a system either, not overwhelmed phenomena that leads to distracted pathology. Modiger and miller gave clues of three interlinked theories such as institutional sociology theory, economics theory and institutional theory etc. herewith, previously formulated rules must be modified as by considering current era requirements. For instance, budgeting procedures has been laid down in budgeting manuals. However, these weren’t having any existence before the commencement of acknowledgement of the legal status of merger and acquisition.


References:


Burns, J. ( 2000). The dynamics of accounting change. Inter-play between
New practises, routines, institutions, power and politics. Accounting
Auditing & Accountability Journal 13 (5), 566–596.


Burns, J., Baldvinsdottir, G. (2005). An institutional perspective of accoun-
tants’ new roles – the interplay of contradictions and praxis. European
Accounting Review 11, 725–757.


Lounsbury, M., (2008). Institutional rationality and practice variation: new
directions in the institutional analysis of practice. Accounting, Orga-
nizations and Society 33 (4–5), 349–361.


Tobias Johansson, sven siverbo (2009) ‘why is research on management accounting change not explicity evolutionary? Taking the next step in the conceptualization of management accounting change’ management accounting research journal, 20, p146-162.


Simon alcoffe. Nicolas Berland, Yves Levant (2008) ‘Actor networks and the diffusion of management accounting innovations: A comparative study, management accounting research 19, pp.1-17.





Evolutionary theory of My DIssertation



This theory had been presented by thorstein veblen, whose work had some extremist elements about the concept of institutionalism. Hence, he was strong supporter of cumulative causality and process oriented viewpoint. Charles Darwan highlighted the same points in his species theory. Herewith, evolutionary theory differs from institutional theory. Veblen hauled up economics, not as an evolutionary science. Evolutionary theory can demonstrate management accounting change in the best possible manners. Herewith, full potential of evolutionary theory hasn’t been fully utilized for management accounting change. (Lounsbury, M., (2008).Evolutionary theory has been grounded with set of thoughts that it incorporates only to gradual and often slow changes.


What if this particular limitation took off from this respective theory thence core understanding about management accounting change can be improved. As far as general conception of management accounting is concerned, it’s the outcome of the relationship of bookbinding interrelation between evolutionary sub processes of retention, selection and variation. Hence, change and continuity are both seemingly evolutionary outcomes. Institutional economics prospective can be improved as if conception about evolutionary is not to be felt gradual or slower. Parameters of institutional theory must be set evolutionary. It is probably the righteous way to be at safer position. True soul of change management can never be installed unless foundations are understood well. Herewith, evolutionary process has resemblance with process oriented revisions of the word change.


However, management accounting change in organizations work a bit differently as it includes random elements, selection of efficient forms of inertia, and change over the time. The only thing that is constant is change itself whilst, everything is changing with minor and major variations. Management account in a context of instutional cumulative causality where management accounting behavior is swayed by rules, institutions and routines etc. accounting rules are to be coupled with various management accounting methods and mechanisms. For instance, performance measurement, costing and budgeting. In synthesis, procedural requirement of any model never change.


Herewith, accounting fundamentals never spell against the human particular behavior in the context of management accounting. Extensive practices of decided rules take accountants to adopt it in their working as a routine. Herewith, routines used to be actually deemed the way of happening thing in the appropriate way. Routines are a form of collective habit. Routines have supposition to be repeated in chronological patters that are often consisting of tacit knowledge. Thus, routines cause to be repeated reflexively by an actor with his behavioral practices. Routines and procedural rules have interred connection with each other. Rules become routines in management accounting discipline. On other side of the flip, routines some times become rules of work. In addition to it, taken-for-granted assumptions put loads of light on human actor and the way as to how he used to be influenced.


On other hand, institutions and human behavior are two different conceptions. Institutions often make necessary alterations in human behavior. On contrary, human actor adhere with strong act may reshape institution as well. Evolutionary theory is vial for searching routines as with the identification of unprofitable activities that is merely used in initiating make-buy decision in organizations.  (Tobias Johansson, sven siverbo (2009)





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Design Management Dissertation Writing Help



The ethnic minorities could use the various features of design management to create original and striking trademarks to help themselves familiarize with the customers. The professional look to this practice is immensely important so that the customers see potential in the businesses of ethnic minorities.


In order to create consistent marketing ploys the ethnic minorities should use the marketing techniques in consistence with the design of their respective businesses. They should gather insight knowledge about their customer markets to know more about their customer base so that they could fabricate better marketing campaigns to cater to their customers better (Macmillan. Gushue, G.V. ,2006: 68)


By carefully analyzing the various features of design management the ethnic minorities could develop core competencies which would allow them to bring out fresh and innovative ideas and products to the market in order to create an image of a brand which is innovative. This would boost the image of the business as well as help to expand the market size. This would definitely help in improving the performance of the business.


Design plays a fundamental role in the development of a product and brand as a whole. In order to create competitive advantage creativity is needed design management paves way for creativity. The ethnic minorities could capitalize on this fact and improve the productivity of their businesses (http://www.mdx.ac.uk/Assets/Ethnic_Min_Bus_Commu.pdf https://anitagrant.com/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=shop.flypage&product_id=112&category_id=24&option=com_phpshop&Itemid=41).


The most important economies of the world are focusing on the design management to help their economies grow. The U.K government has been helping the ethnic minorities to adopt better strategies and marketing ploys to help them grow (http://www.ethnos.co.uk/#/ethnic-market-opportunities/4544547770).


The government has realized the potential of design to create competition among the local businesses including the businesses of ethnic minorities. The government has taken pragmatic steps to ensure that the businesses of ethnic minorities in inner cities prosper through design management. These small businesses have immense potential to not only grow but to contribute to the economy as a whole.


The businesses of ethnic minorities could use design to better design their policies regarding innovation. They could also use design to improve the policies of communication of the business. (http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/business-development/accelerator/growth/ice.cfm). This would help the businesses of ethnic minorities become efficient and more innovative. By improving the communication policies through design the businesses would be better able to respond to the ever changing needs of the customer base.


The investment in design management practices is not in vein. The benefits which are brought on by adopting design management, more than offset the investment and help the businesses to become global, which is of importance in today’s global economy. The ethnic minorities should not hesitate to invest in design management practices and must keep in view the benefits which are related to the incorporation of design management into their businesses.


Those businesses of ethnic minorities which are struggling in the inner cities and need to restructure their businesses can especially benefit from the design management. Design management enables businesses to restructure themselves in an efficient and effective way so that the businesses turn out to be successful and productive (https://intranet.londonmet.ac.uk/studentservices/careers/student-enterprise/useful-websites.cfm).


A research shows that those companies which incorporate design tend to grow faster than those which don’t consider design management. The ethnic minorities’ businesses should take a cue from this important research finding and use design in their firms to help their businesses grow and achieve their potential.


Design management has one another inherent benefit in the fact that it is internal and thus it can be used as a secret recipe for a business’ growth. Thus the ethnic minorities can also utilize design and reap the benefits without others knowing the underlying secrets to success. This would immensely help businesses of ethnic minorities in the inner cities.

References:


Barot, R., Bradley, H. and Fenton, S. (1999) `Rethinking Ethnicity and Gender””, in R. Barot et al. (eds) Ethnicity, Gender and Social Change, pp. 1-25.


(http://www.ethnos.co.uk/#/ethnic-market-opportunities/4544547770)


(http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/mar/17/david-cameron-support-black-entrepreneurs).


(http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/business-development/accelerator/growth/ice.cfm)


Basingstoke: Macmillan havnani, R. (2006) `Ahead of the Game: The Changing Aspirations of Young Ethnic Minority Women””, in Equal Opportunities Commission, Moving on up?


Basingstoke : Macmillan. Gushue, G.V. (2006) `The Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Career, Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations among Latino/a High School Students”” , Journal of Vocational Behavior 68(1): 85-95


(http://www.mdx.ac.uk/Assets/Ethnic_Min_Bus_Commu.pdfhttps://anitagrant.com/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=shop.flypage&product_id=112&category_id=24&option=com_phpshop&Itemid=41).


(https://intranet.londonmet.ac.uk/studentservices/careers/student-enterprise/useful-websites.cfm).




Design Management Dissertation



Design Management is a discipline in business which incorporates the techniques of various other disciplines such as supply chain project management to foster an environment of creativity and construct an organizational structure for design. Design Management is utilized to achieve strategic goals of an organization through an effective and efficient design.


Design management can indeed be used to enhance the productivity / business performance of ethnic minorities business in the inner cities of U.K.


Ethnic minorities can use design management in a number of ways to help their businesses achieve more productivity (Barot ,1999: 24). The various features of design management can be utilized in a number of ways to help the various issues surrounding the business performance of ethnic minorities within inner cities of U.K.


The ethnic minority in U.K is expanding and becoming richer rapidly. One in ten businesses in U.K are owned by ethnic minorities. There are over 15000 businesses of ethnic minorities in Greater London alone, according to estimation (http://www.ethnos.co.uk/#/ethnic-market-opportunities/4544547770)


The Government is using design management to help the various sectors of ethnic minorities in their businesses. In March, David Cameron promised to help black entrepreneurs. Tory leader wants to ‘take down the barriers that stop so many black people realizing their potential’ (http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/mar/17/david-cameron-support-black-entrepreneurs).


The U.K government also announced The Inner City Entrepreneurs’ fund to provide assistance to the businesses of ethnic minorities in the inner cities (http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/business-development/accelerator/growth/ice.cfm)


The ethnic minorities could use product design management to design products which would give their businesses  originality and also to create different marketing approaches which would allow them to increase awareness about their products.


The ethnic minorities could use Brand design management to better manage brand design management. The ethnic minorities should focus on their brand to create better customer relationships (Macmillan havnani ,2006: 19).


In order to gain better visual representation the ethnic minorities could use design to churn out products and strategies which would allow them to show to the consumer market that they have products or services which are attractive to the market.




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