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Economics Paper Writing Sample



Economics topic choices: The Nature of Economics, Scarcity and the World of Trade-Offs, Demand and Supply, Public Spending and Public Choice, The Macro economy Unemployment, Inflations and Deflation, Measuring the Economy~~s Performance, Global Economic Growth and Development, Real GDP and the Price Level in the Long Run, Classical and Keynesian Macro Analyses, Fiscal Policy


The nature of economics
The nature of economics discusses the distinction between macroeconomics and microeconomics. It also discusses the elements of an economic theory and model. Economics has ultimate relationship with consumer behavior; it works parallel to consumer choices as if they start demanding any commodities then its prices would hike up. It is economics, which highlights the importance of mass production conception, selective production, and market based production concepts.


Scarcity and world trade off
Scarcity is inability to generate satisfaction as of poor availability of resources. It is common thinking among economists that everything is getting scarce day by day. Individuals haven’t been changing their preferences and selection criteria. Price increase of product is one good example of scarcity as one product get scarce then its price is to be hiked up to manage the demand mechanism.
Trade off is a situation that involves losing one quality or aspect of something in return for gaining another. People don’t embrace new features if old ones have been satisfying their needs in better way. This welcomes to scarcity conception. Such consumer behavior always causes price increase in commodities. Eventually, consumers have to pay little more to fulfill such needs.


Demand and supply
Demand has reverse relationship with supply, if demand increases then supply will be in less amount. Similarly, less supply of products become the reason of the increase in demand. Eventually, increase in demand causes prices to be hiked. Customers have to pay off a bit more to satisfy same needs, which used to be satisfied by paying less in older days. For instance, petroleum prices have been continuously increasing up as of fewer supplies of petroleum products. International petrol markets have been deliberately using this fundamental concept.





Cost of Equity: Paper Writing Samples



In financial hypothesis, the return that stockholders want for a firm/company is known as cost of equity. The basic formula to calculate the cost of equity is based on dividend capitalization model that is:

A firm’s cost of equity characterizes the return that the market necessitates in trade for owning the assets and bearing the risk of possession. Two methods can be used to find out the cost of equity. Two widely used methods to determine the cost of equity is Dividend growth model and security market line approach.

Cost of Debt
Debt elements of capital might include numerous line items i.e. loans from numerous financial organizations with different terms and costs and preferred stock. Some of the loans might have floating or fixed interest rate. The more other components of debt are bonds and leases. The efficient rate that a firm disburses on its present debt can be determined prior to or after the tax returns as the interest cost is deductible. A firm uses numerous loans, bonds and other kinds of debt so this measure is helpful for providing an idea as to the largely rate being salaried by the firm to utilize the debt money. This measure or technique can also enrich the investor with the idea about the risk ness of the firm as related to others as the riskier firms have higher cost of debt.

To calculate the cost of debt, first the firms needs to calculate the individual cost of each element of debt than calculate the weighted average cost of capital. For example, if there are seven bonds issues than 1st, we will calculate the cost of each individual bond than will move towards calculating the weighted average cost of capital to find the overall cost of debt.


Weighted Average Cost of Capital
WACC is the rate that a firm anticipated to pay on standard to all of its shareholders to finance their assets. A firm’s resources are funded by the use of debt or equity and the WACC is the average cost of these two resources of funding, each one is weighted by its individual utilization. By calculating the WACC, a firm can evaluate that how much interest the firm has to compensate for each dollar it finance.

As a whole, WACC is overall required return on the firm and it is also exercised inside the firm to decide the financial viability of expansionary openings and amalgamations. The general formula for calculating the WACC is:


CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model)
The resources returns depends on the sum compensated for the asset at present. The cost paid should guarantee that the market collection risk and return distinctiveness progress when the asset is putted to it. The CAPM (Capital asset pricing model) is a model which forces the hypothetical compulsory return for an asset in marketplace, specified the risk free rate presented to the shareholders and the risk of marketplace as a total. The general formula to calculate the CAPM is:

CAPM is also a desired model that is used to compute the cost of equity.



Firm’s financial mix
Investment choices depend upon the cost of capital. Capital is collected to grant money services that are key input for the productive process. Capital for a firm comprises of reasonable ratio of debt and equity which is also called financial mix.

Financial mix is a name used in the business world to describe a combination of debt to equity in a firm. This term is use to explain the formula that describes how much investment is being lifted by the debt and how a lot is being lifted by the equity. Financial firms believe that financial mix have an important impact on rising or lessening the worth of a firm. Debt financing is basically a money advance of cash that must have to be pay back, usually with an interest form on crest and equity, on the other side, is financing policy that is obtained from shareholders of the firm and does not essentially have to be paid back, though shareholders will usually be expecting a level of required return for their assets.

Conclusion
The cost of capital has strapping consequences for the firms that makes investments and it can be manipulated by the financial resources. This research paper discusses the cost of capital and its various components to find out weighted average cost of capital of a firm. The sum of all components of cost of capital like cost of debt and cost of equity brings WACC of the firm that is overall required rate of return on firm’s financial assets. Financial mix describes the ratio of debt to equity of a firm and has significant impacts on the overall worth of the firm.

References


Ross, A Stephen. (1977). The Capital asset pricing model (CAPM), Short sale restrictions and related issues, Journal of Finance, 32 (177)


Pastor, L. & Stambaugh, R. F. (1999). Costs of Equity Capital and Model Mispricing: American Finance Association. Journal of Finance, 54(1), 67-121.


Fama, E. F. & French, K.R. (1999). The Corporate cost of capital and the return on corporate investment: American Finance Association. Journal of Finance, 54(6), 1939-1967.


Van Horne & Wachowicz. (2004). Fundamentals of financial management. New York: Prentice Hall Publishers.


Richard, Brealey & Stewart. (1991). Principles of corporate finance, 4th Edition: New York, McGraw Hill Publishers.




This ditochomy is not true



In most that talk about selfishness and altruism, theirs has been assumption that selfishness and altruism are polar opposites. According to those discussions to do moral thing always mean being an altruists. The moral action of the altruists is not influenced by self-interest decisions but is influenced by morally accepted decisions. Conversely selfish act is to prevent or to make impossible for a good to happen which may have been morally implicated.However this view was criticized by descriptive theory of egoism, Feinberg and psychological by arguing that moral deeds are sometimes leads to compromising self needs for other causes.


This ditochomy is not true


It is necessary to note that those who do altruistic acts are always aware of the topic and they do the topics that they feel comfortable with and that they fully identifies with. For instance, for the risk of my life I decided to support a government that will advocate for a democratic, stable and peaceful country. The big question is that what is the reason behind my selfless act and what good will I gain? In this case I will gain security in terms of physical and health securities. Also the elements of identity will rise in. That is whenever people see me they will see me as a democratic person. The point therefore is that a person’s self-identity expands beyond a person’s self interest in a very narrow sense, therefore allowing for situations where selfish action becomes a moral one. In the example above to argue that the sacrifice I have made is to achieve altruism is contradictory. Democracy is highly central in protecting myself interest and is more painful for me to give it up. Altruism and selfishness ceases to exist as mutually exclusive acts.
Assuming that there exist dichotomy between selfishness and altruism is derailing peoples moral integrity.




Emmanuel Kant



Aristotle also views ethics as the force that holds human society and civilization together, since it is ethics that controls the dynamics and reality of human nature. To Aristotle, man and his nature is a trifurcation of the vegetable, the animal and the rational elements. The vegetable elements include the physical aspect of man, and his metabolism, whereas the animal part consists of the appetitive and emotional aspects. The rational part of man on the other hand includes the mental and conceptual aspects of man (Colman) .


According to Aristotle Ethics should allow for the measurement of extremes, for instance, as an ethical concept, courage is seen as the moderation of recklessness and fear. Aristotle sees ethics as a very important factor in the society and suggests that man should not just simply live, but does so well and in conduct that is bridled by moderate virtue. Nevertheless, many see the actualization of this dictum as being so difficult, given that the virtue that is being referred to entails practicing that which is right, at the right time, with proper motivation, for the right reason, to the right party, to the appropriate extent and in the correct manner (Hughes) .


Emmanuel Kant


He did his works between April 22nd, 1724 and February 12th, particularly, it is vital to note that Kant was mainly interested in deontology, as an ethical approach that asserts the rightness or goodness of an object, an element or an idea. As such, Kant postulates that it is better and more accurate to observe the rules and duties that are related to the action. It is due to this reasons that Kant’s philosophy on ethics is seen as being deontological.


Kant asserts that, “To act in an ethically upright manner, an individual must have acted from duty,” Kant went ahead to illustrate that it is not the consequences of the actions carried out that makes an act right or wrong, but the benefits received by the majority. The Kantian point of view on ethics maintains that, “Elements deemed to be good, such as pleasure, intelligence and perseverance cannot be counted to be taken to be intrinsically good, or in the absence of qualification” (Kant) .


While intelligence can be used by an individual to harm others, pleasure can be derived from watching other people languish in poverty and misery. Perseverance may also be used as a weapon or a stratagem employed by an individual against his perceived enemy. As such, all these are constructs that are good by the look at the facade, but in reality, they portend actions that are ethically worse.


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John Locke



Kant, like Aristotle uses a maxim to bring out the importance and essence of ethics Kant. Given the above maxim made by Kant, it is easy to see that to him, the most important concept that used to appraise an action carried out by an individual as either good or bad, is the will. This is to say that to Kant, an action may be deemed bad, in extrinsic terms, but a careful look at the intrinsic underpinnings may justify the action that has been carried out.


John Locke


He performed his duties as a philosopher between August 29th, 1632 and October 28th, 1704. He did not only make contributions touching on political philosophy, but also made cogent contributions towards ethics as moral philosophy. As a matter of fact, Locke’s concept of ethics is considered in social sciences as the Father of Liberalism (Dunn) . According to Tully, Locke’s viewpoint on ethics is found on intergenerational obligation and stewardship. To Locke, the system of intergenerational ethics is based on five factors: the need to preserve human species; the need to prevent any possible destruction or wastage of creation; the need to treat the earth as opposed to owners the need to leave behind, what is enough and good for other people; and the need to respect and preserve every generation’s right to chart its own destiny by making its own political choices. This means that John Locke’s arguments on ethics are merely geared towards ensuring that there is intergenerational social justice and harmony (Tully) .


The preservation of the human species is the primary concern of Locke in ethics. To him, all ethical standards and fundamentals of all natural laws are ancillary to the need to act towards the realization of the preservation of species. Locke adheres closely to Biblical notion that the earth is given for mankind as a form of intergenerational commons and cites King David’s point that, “God gave the world to Adam and to his posterity in common.” To this effect, the chief obligation of mankind as the tenant is to maintain the property or an asset in as good state as it was, primordially. To Locke, therefore, as a tenant, every individual must be guided by the ethics that will safeguard the earth for both God and the tenant-generations that are to come.


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Wolterstorff



Locke asserts further that the practicing of ethics must ensure that the consideration of the “world as commons” must prescribe waste and destruction. Locke states that given that all human possessions are tokens from the Creator, then it is definite that people have ethical and moral obligations to practice due care of possessions that are within their jurisdiction. Locke sums his point by quipping that “God made nothing for man to destroy or spoil.” In almost the same wavelength, he maintains that it is morally binding for persons in the state of nature to consume the claimed resources before they spoil; otherwise he will be robbing others (Wolterstorff).


Locke opines that an individual can and should through legitimate means create his personal property and interests within the bounty of nature, as long as there are enough resources that are left in common for others. The important bit of this is the 21st century world which is totally embroiled in consumerism, capitalism, materialism and the endless pursuit of expansionist acquisitions. To Locke, political duties may be owed by later generations to earlier generations. This is to the effect that the incumbent generations’ authority to make decisions remains ethical if the decisions are not negatively binding and malevolent to the later generations.


In summary, it is important to note that the variety that is extant in Aristotle’s, Immanuel Kant’s and John Locke’s points of view is brought about by the specific nature of their surroundings at a specific time, and their collective worldview. To Aristotle, since the then Grecian culture and empire was not fully amenable to democracy and equity, the need to reiterate the importance of making felicity conditions needed for self actualization by an individual was paramount.


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John Locke’s standpoint



To Kant, the most important aspect of ethics depends on the will. Given that at the time, Europe had already undergone the renaissance age, it would be important to judge an act in a manner that would encompass comprehensiveness. Given the complexity of issues that surrounded actions that would be judged as ethical, unethical, or even amoral, Kant therefore saw it important to factor acts that are carried out in duty. A soldier killing his opponent in the line of duty would not be condemned for having acted unethically, since he will be discharging his duties.


John Locke’s standpoint on ethics also illustrates the times and place that characterized his life. At that time, England and Europe were caught up in the adventure of carrying out the acquisition of wealth, and the extension of a nation’s political strength through investment and colonialism. It is against this backdrop that John Locke waxed poignant that for an act to pass as ethical, it must have factored the welfare of the rest of the humanity, the welfare of the environment and that of generations to come. Therefore, the amassing of wealth at the expense of future generations, environmental safety, and to the detriment of the masses would amount to an unethical act, according to Locke.




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