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THE EU’S SINGLE MARKET; THE IMPACT OF A FAILURE TO HARMONISE TAXES



Introduction:

EU single market operations have been installed in 1985 for the purpose to make movement within European Union countries without technical, physical and tax related barriers. However, the main aim of European Union committee was to stimulate commercial and industrial expansion as by attaining unified market operations in the favor of European countries. Later on, it became a great threat for whole world because developed countries came to this side for giving tough time to whole world. In single market operations; companies may take couple advantage over rest of competitors as EU companies may expand their manufacturing plants around EU countries. For instance, fabric manufacturing companies don’t afford extra expenditure on employees therefore they prefer to open up their manufacturing plants where they can find cheap labor rates. Hence, they open up such setups in where they can find their desired advantage. in single market operations activities used to be interlinked with each other therefore its main purpose is to produce products for community market. On other hand, a holding authority is needed to control all these functions on ground level that is European Union, which is supposed responsible for taking care of community harmonization legislation. They need to ensure health concerning issues covered by manufacturer. Hence, single market operations used to be surveillance by regional authorities as for knowing the convenient and promising features available by company to its valuable customers. (EC regulatory authority (2010).



As far as objectives of single market are concerned, the intentions behind in coalition of market forces are to merged together in order to work freely and unified system against external market forces. European Union member states don’t want to let any other state allow interpenetrating through loopholes therefore a joint action has been taken against dominant market elements. For this particular reason, emergence of euro currency came into experience, which is good sign for all European countries as it protected them from the worries of exchange rates. Single market operations don’t offer tax constraints to companies. Thus, companies can carry their equipment and plants within specified region.

Research objectives:

  1. We want to study EU single market operations
  2. We want to investigate the impact of a failure to harmonize taxes.
  3. We want to investigate the role of EU single market in the context of tax implementation.
  4. We want to study; why problems can this cause





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The Malaysian Operation



The plan of developing market share for goods external to the usual supermarket arena has resulted in Tesco excedding Sainsbury’s to become the biggest supermarket in the UK, and it now holds over a quarter of the market (Strategic Direction, 2005). In 2008, Tesco began to offer its first in-store order-and-collect service as it tries to compete with Argos, the current leader the catalogue sector. The new service was evaluated at Tesco’s Cribbs Causeway store (which is utilized as a laboratory store for testing new products and services) and has since been extended to other locations as well. Tesco has also begun to offer a collection of software products for home or office use that competes directly with offerings from Microsoft. Tesco Complete Office comprises two security/antivirus products, a personal finance program, a DVD-writing tool, and a photo-editing application and is sold for less than £20 compared to Microsoft Office 2007 which sells for £45.


Tesco has in the recent past begun to offer the ‘Discounter’ product range to be able to compete with the supposed threat of Aldi and Lidl. The discount supermarket sector has benefited from recent economic havoc as increasing food costs have brought more people to their stores. 80% of Tesco’s sales come from regions in which Aldi and Lidl are not to be found. Commercial director Richard Brasher recognizes the “centre of gravity in the marketplace” has shifted (Ritson, 2008). The test in the future is to stay away from the problem of becoming stuck in the centre of the market when consumers are trading down. However, it might be argued that fighter brands produced to cater to a specific competitor tend to fail as they take over the owner’s higher-priced products instead of taking share from their intended target. Of course it is uncertain how successful this product range has been at stopping customer switching away. In the past three months, £22m of spending shifted from Tesco to Asda, with another £10m moving to Morrisons (Wearden, 2008).


Tesco has also recently carried out substantial social marketing initiatives, such as the opening of a flagship environmentally friendly supermarket in Wick, which has wind turbines, a mechanism to collect and use rainwater, energy-saving cooling and cooking equipment and low-energy lighting. The store is made to produce half the ‘carbon footprint’ of comparable sized traditional supermarket. Examining the value in environmentally conscious initiatives can decrease costs and make customers happy. However, as Tesco tries to form a name as a solidly price-conscious retailer the choice to chase green initiatives may send out confusing messages and this strategy should be investigated when the majority of its customers are lower middle to middle class and are altering their concerns in the current economic situation.


There are three aspects that guide Tesco’s strategic behaviour with regardi to internationalisation. First, purchasing successful companies is key to their scheme of overseas expansion, with greater progress into growing markets from the 1990s onwards. Tesco entered Asia in 1998 with the buying of a majority stake in Lotus hypermarkets in Thailand, and more developed operations in the area when they entered Malaysia in 2002, Japan in 2003 and China in 2004. The Malaysian operation was set up as a joint venture with a local company Sime Darby Behad. Tesco owns 70% of the shares, but the concernis under local control. In China, Tesco entered a similar contract with Shanghai Hymall. Tesco purchased into successful companies with local operational knowhow and set up market share and its expansion strategy hope for eventual market domination.


The second aspect relates to market selection. Tesco opted to enter into markets (Eastern Europe and South East Asia) where local competition was malleable, away from other increasing giants such as Wal-Mart. Tesco also adapted to opportune events, and took on different entry modes in order to create knowledge.




About Small Retailers



For the purposes of this paper a small retailer is defined as a retailer that employs between zero and 10 employees. As per this definition, in London in 2004 there were 34,763 small retailers with a total of 104,154 employees.  Employing this same explanation, in Great Britain (Great Britain) in 2004 there were a total of 243,508 small retailers employing a total of 831,099 employees.  Small retailers make up 87 per cent of all retailers in London and  85 per cent for Great Britain as a whole. London consists of approximately 14 per cent of all small retailers in the whole of Great Britain.

During the years 1998 and 2004 the number of small retailers reduced by 4 per cent (a full amount of a little over 10,000 small retailers) in Great Britain, and by 2.3 per cent (a little more than 800 small retailers) in London. During the same duration of time the number of large retailers (defined as those employing 10 or more employees) heightened by 9.5 per cent in Great Britain, and by 13 per cent in London.  On the other hand, carefulness is required when utilizing such figures to form an opinion on differences in the number of different sized retailers across time. This is due to the fact that the number of small retailers as explained by the number of employees can be distorted by a number of elements. First of all, the number may be increased by a rise in the quantity of new retail business that have sprung up. On second count, the quantity may be reduced by a number of small retail organizations exiting the industry. In addition to these factors the quantity of small retailers may rise if several medium-sized retailers decrease their employees and downsize (and as a result be re-categorized as small retailers). And last of all, the quantity of small retailers may reduce if several small retailers increase in size and turn into medium-sized retail businesses. For this reason, even as there has been a smaller decrease in the quantity of small retailers in London as compared to the UK, over the past few years it is hard to be accurate about the causes for this discrepancy.

As has become obvious from other research on the retail industry, and as the small retailer firms revealed to us during the course of this study, it is hard to acquire data from retailers themselves. For this reason most of the data acquired for this paper ha to be obtained from interviews with small retailer firms, instead of from straightforward responses from small retailers themselves

After a study of the literature and the resulting study, this dissertation then examines a few of the possible steps small retailers might execute in order to alleviate the harmful effects of some of these problems and ends by summarizing the main results of the paper and discusses the suggestions for retailers to take.



Planning policy



Even though it is possible that small retailers that compete directly with large retailers will confront very hard conditions when a large retailer come into their area, because of the expenses and brand advantages of large retailers, it is possible that other small retailers in the area may profit, with respect to enhanced sales, due to enhanced footfall caused by the large retailer. This means that it has been contended that when a large retailer comes into an area it brings with it a greater level of footfall to the location. Other retailers in the neighbourhood of the large retailer will profit from this increased footfall because of increased sales.


On the other hand, another consequence of this increased footfall is possible to be higher rents – as more retailers see the location as feasible enabling landlords to raise rents. For this reason, other small retailers in the location that do not compete directly with the large retailer may find circumstances harder if their sales, which will profit from the increased footfall, are not enough to cover the higher rental, which also is a consequence of the increased footfall. All the same, even though the entry of a large retailer to an area may have an effect on a number of retailers in the location– both because of direct competition as well as through their impact on rental levels – it is possible that other retailers will come in as a consequence of the greater footfall thus preserving retail (even though not the same retail as previously) in the location.


Some have contended that this alteration in the organization of the High Street should be opposed, stating that small retailers offer variety of choice for consumers, supply goods and services that might not if not be offered by the large retailers and usually result in a more socially agreeable environment. Despite this, proof that small retailers do result in about such an environment is not strong. Indeed, it can equally be stated that if there is a demand for a specific good or service then the large retailers will acknowledge the consumer demand and cater to it; that is having small retailers is not a compulsory stipulation for offering diversity and choice in goods or services. Apart from in the case of retailers that offer very specialised goods or services, it is possible that large retailers will typically offer goods and services wherever there is enough consumer demand for them.


Planning policy
One cause for large retailers entering into high street locations could be the consequence of changes to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister’s planning policy in the shape of Planning Policy Guidance 6 (PPG6) Town centres and retail developments, in 1996. The main provision of PPG6 included:


• A focus on a plan-led approach to leading development in town centres
• A focus on the chronological method for selecting sites for development
• Backing for local centres.


A revised Planning Policy Statement (PPS6), which replaces PPG6, was in print in early 2005. Roughly speaking it keeps the focus on in-town development.


Changes in consumer demand patters
In addition to planning policy, alterations in consumer demand may have led to the rise in the number of small format stores of the large retailers. For example it could be contended that in recent years while consumers’ disposable income has risen, the amount of time that they have for shopping has decreased. These alterations may have led to a rise in demand for longer operatng hours and increased convenience both with respect to location (therefore more high street stores) and with respect to the goods that are wanted (for example more ready-prepared foods).


The large grocery retailers have modified according to the fluctuations in consumer demand patterns by offering ‘fresh and chilled’ food and by increasing their opening hours, with some offering 24-hour operating times. Besides this, many stores of the large grocery retailers (including large and small stores) are now operative on a Sunday, subsequent to the easing of the Sunday Trading Laws. This is a noteworthy issue for small retailers because in the past, longer operating hours tended to act as a comparative edge for small retailers over large retailers. As more large retailers utilize longer operating hours this comparative edge is eaten away. Certainly there is proof in the literature to imply that small retailers have observed a reduction in their earnings since the move towards Sunday Trading. The London Chamber of Commerce in its investigation of the independent retail industry set up that just over 80 per cent of respondents to their survey (of small retailers) said that the letting of Sunday Trading Laws had led to a reduction in their revenues.


Small retailers have also discovered that it is harder to modify according to these changes in consumer demand patters. Part of the cause for this is due to the expense involved in adapting to the changes. For instance, in comparative terms, it is more costly for small retailers to stay open for longer hours than it is for large retailers. The logic for this is that large retailers are apt to have some staff working 24 hours a day (for instance people stocking shelves) and for this reason it does not raise their costs by the same proportion to stay open longer.
In addition in many cases small retailers will not have the floor space needed to offer ‘fresh and chilled’ foods or other products demanded as a consequence of changes in consumer behaviour. In addition, in instances where floor space is not a problem small retailers may find it difficult to obtain the capital to make the required changes to their store to be able to adapt to consumer demand, for example for buying the fridges and cabinets required for ‘fresh and chilled’ foods.


It can be deduced that competition from large retailers, specially in the grocery sector, has affected greatly small retailers. Probably most significantly, the greater buyer clout that the scale of large retailers delivers enables them to be much more competitive in terms of price (in their large or small format stores) as opposed to small independent retailers. The trend of the large, particularly grocery, retailers towards offering a greater range of goods and services in addition to small format stores in high street locations will raise the competition that many small retailers have to face. As a consequence of these changes and other elements such as alterations in operating hours for example a tremendous amount of small retailers’ former comparative edge in terms of convenience has been eroded.




Marketing Strategy



Marketing strategy is the process though which organisations use their scarce resources to achieve competitive advantage in an industry through creating opportunities for increased revenues by applying various methods and techniques (Baker 2008). According to Ferrell and Hartline (2007) the strategic planning process involves an in depth analysis of an organisation’s internal and external environment and implementing tools and techniques to gain a competitive advantage within this environment. The strategic planning process is also referred to as a situational analysis where the situation and environment is evaluated and marketing techniques are implemented through a specific marketing strategy. Implementing a marketing strategy is not only important to gain a competitive advantage but also for the long term survival of an organisation especially in the retailing industry. According to Lamb, Hair and McDaniel (2008) implementing a marketing strategy in any type of retailing company are very important and lead to strategic competitive advantage within the retailing industry.


Sethi (2009) described ten methods of improving a marketing strategy in the current environment which include new strategies for new times, segmentation and decision, search for newer markets, emphasis on value and brand portfolio, updating distribution channels, helping the consumer through various techniques, providing state of the art products and services for consumer convenience, applying effective communication techniques, going digital and using various Information Technology tools and techniques and analysing the changing patterns of consumer demands and behaviour.


Types of Marketing Strategies
There are several types of marketing strategy as described by many researchers and practitioners which are based on various concepts and frameworks. According to Christ (2009) the types of marketing strategies applied by companies are market leader, market challenger, market follower, market niche and alliance marketing. Turnbull and Valla (1986) presented five types of marketing strategies which include technical innovative strategy, product adaptation strategy, availability and security strategy, low price strategy and total adaptation or conformity strategy. Companies implement one of these types of marketing strategies or a mix of these strategies to gain competitive advantage within an organisation.




My argument is that self-interest concept



Human altruism has got that complication of compassion that is sometimes being confused to have the same meaning as altruism. These words have two different meanings; with compassion meaning an emotion while altruism means action. Even though they are connected a person can act in an altruistic way without necessary sharing the feelings of other people, but a person may feel compassion without doing altruistic action.


Some arguments has been made against altruism calculation theories based on decisions to do some altruistic actions, just to say; for example a person jumping into a river to save some drowning teenager, may not be made based on the calculation of genetic inheritance, but because of emotions and feelings towards doing good. These two words seems to be both having influence in decision making, and the issue of neurological mechanisms playing into these makes it to separate them from each other when evaluating such actions.


There is a relationship between selfishness and altruism and the perceived split between the two false and damaging to the moral integrity. My argument is that self-interest concept can be reinterpreted to include doings which are generally viewed as altruistic or maybe selfness, giving examples to support it. The combination of the two requires definition which is less dualistic but growth oriented than just morality that most people express.
Ditochomy in altruism and selfishness





Understanding ethics Concept of ethics



Philosophical developments advanced by think tanks in different fields, has led to human civilization. Medicine, politics, economics, ethics, government, military, business, entrepreneurship, arts and sports, among others, have underestimated the dexterity and prolificacy of philosophers. Philosophers ethics for instance, has been shaped by philosophers such as Aristotle, Emmanuel Kant and John Locke have revolutionized all these particular fields. As a branch of philosophy, ethics is a moral philosophy that addresses the questions concerning morality, goodness or badness of a conduct by an individual or community


Aristotle


He existed between 384 BC and 322 BC; he advocated that ethics be seen as a self realization. To Aristotle, the lucidity of ethics is based on the fact that if an individual acts in accordance with his nature and to the realization of his full potential, he will be contented. Aristotle visualizes ethics as the key contributor to the realization of individual’s full potential. He postulates that at birth, the child is not a person, but the potential to become a person. In order to becomes a real person, that child’s intrinsic potential must be realized. Aristotle mentions that the application of ethics makes the society acts in accordance with nature so as to nurture the child’s latent talents so that he may be complete and contented (Bakewell) .


According to Aristotle the absence of this ethical observation by the parents or the society may lead to frustration and unhappiness. This frustration emanates from the potential that is never realized of a person. Aristotle asserts that this will eventually lead to poor. Ethics is also the most primeval factor in the realization of a happy society since it allows for self actualization, while happiness in itself is seen as the ultimate goal of human existence. To give emphasis to his point, Aristotle maintains that socio-political constructs such as wealth and civic life are the only means to the end, and therefore being ancillary to ethics and the happiness. He advocates that proper ethics must ensure that there is room for awareness of one’s nature, and the subsequent nurturing of one’s talents since they are essential ingredients of happiness according to Aristotle (Barnes) .





Religion and cultural differences



Religion and cultural differences can also mess up a progress of one’s health when in hospital. For instance, Tabrizi does not want to take the hospital’s food because he not sure if the food has pork or not. His religion does not allow him to eat pork or pork products, so, he feels it is safe not to eat the food at all. Mr. Tabrizi still refuses to eat despite the fact that the chief nurse urges him to do so for his own health. This serious problem affects many patients in hospitals. Another example is that it may be difficult for a female Muslim to disrobe in the presence of a male doctor, even if it is necessary.


In addition, some African beliefs and cultures do not allow making eye contact or even questioning an authority person, it is disrespectful; yet, a doctor just needs a confirmation from a patient through eye contact or questioning. A part from poor quality and unsafe treatment, miscommunication and cultural differences can lead to some problems. One of these problems is that the cost of health care can go up because of miscommunication and cultural differences.


For example, if a patient does not understand the doctor’s language, or understands very little, the doctor may need to do more tests to come up with diagnosis. All the tests need money; therefore, the patient will have to pay more than the one who communicates effectively, since an effective communication will lead to a faster diagnosis (Lindh & Pooler, 2009).




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