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Free Sample of Research Methodology Chapter

The researcher has carried out a literature-based study by analysing qualitative articles in order to critically analyse palliative patients’ experiences of being cared for in the home. The method is based on evidence-based nursing with basic qualitative research since the main focus of this systematic review is to understand the factors that influence the choice of home death specifically from a patient perspective. Qualitative research expands understanding of the chosen phenomenon on patients’ experiences, expectations and needs.

Literature Search

Literature searches were conducted in PubMed and Cinahl with nursing as a subject area. Keyword selection was based on the research purpose to identify factors influencing choice of home death in palliative care. The researcher also conducted a manual search based on references in other articles through snow balling different keywords.  11 of many such outcomes from database are summarised in Table 1. Before these 11 articles were isolated, many articles were selected for the relevance of their titles and authors and then read the articles abstract. In total, 51 audited abstracts were isolated and their full text was read for relevance and pertinence to the aforementioned research question.

Table 1: Selected Outcome of literature search

Database Keywords Outcome Audited abstract Reviewed articles
PubMed Palliative nursing care 238 7 3
PubMed Palliative care at home AND experience 42 3 1
PubMed Palliative care AND coping 41 8 2
PubMed Palliative care AND quality of life AND cancer AND home care 63 11 2
Cinahl Palliative care AND cancer 147 8 3
Cinahl Palliative care AND outpatient AND patients experiences 157 8 2
Manual Search 6 6 3


Criteria for Selected Sources

Peer-reviewed research papers were selected from all the full texts and formed the basis for this study. The researcher carried out the search of articles with the following inclusion criteria:

  • Articles would answer the purpose of the study and the research question.
  • Articles content would include quantitative or qualitative data but from a patient perspective
  • Articles would be in English, and will be available in full text.
  • Articles would be published from 2000 onwards and the content would be based on current research. The content would also be based on studies in adult patients with a diagnosis of advanced cancer.

Data Analysis

Abstracts as for the purpose deemed interesting were scrutinized and then ​​a selection of 51 full-text articles was read in full.  The analysis of chosen 11 articles is based on Evans (2003) analysis, where the whole of the articles results were analysed and it exposes the parts that help synthesize new findings.  The analysis is carried out by looking at studies several times and focusing on studies results. Evans identified key findings after synthesizing a compilation of key results of reviewed researches. Finally, the different studies results are related against each other and analysis is presented in new themes. This is the methodology used in the present study. Each of the articles was studied in detail to synthesize key results which were classified into three general themes and finally, different findings were related with one other to understand whether choice of home death is best for patients.


The results and findings presented in this chapter are based on palliative care patients’ experiences of being cared for in the home and are reported in three themes and further subthemes based on common and unique findings in the 11 articles. An overview of 11 researches selected for the study purpose is presented in appendix A. The first theme, it feels good to be home describes the patient’s experience of home life, the relationship with their relatives and carers. The second theme of life is limited – I’m trying to gain control describes the patient’s experience of daily life. The last theme of life with death proximity can be both safe and unsafe describes patients’ perceptions of security and hope, but also a sense of powerlessness while they prepare for death.

Table 2: Themes

Theme 1

Theme 2 Theme 3

It’s usually good to be home

Life is Limited – I am trying to gain control

To live in the proximity of death
can be both safe and

  • Being close to their related
  • To have control of symptoms
  • Knowledge of security / insecurity
  • To get care from professional carers
  • To have control over body
  • To have hope
  • A feeling of being a burden
  • Being dependent / Independent
  • Preparing for death
  • Feeling isolated
  • Knowing participation

It’s usually good to be home

The first main theme describes patients’ experience of being at home and what home means to them. Appelin & Berterö (2004) interviewed 6 palliative care patients and identified three themes.  The first main theme describing patients’ experience of being at home and what home means to them. This was described as a feeling of safety and security. Patients felt at home in that environment with their personal belongings, memories and proximity to family. It made it possible for them to maintain their independence and maintain a sort of autonomy while also given the opportunity to live by normal routine and have a sense of “feel good”.  These finding were endorsed by Melin-Johansson et al. who in their study of 2008 to determine the feasibility of research into palliative home care, found that being at home increased quality of life.

Patients suggested that it was wonderful to be cared for at home with the support of relatives, nursing and specialist staff that made it possible that suffering was alleviated and the quality of life and wellbeing increased (Melin-Johansson, et al., 2008). This finding was also endorsed by Ohman et al. (2003)’s doctoral thesis and Appelin & Berterö (2004)’s study, as at home, the patient could himself decide when and what they wanted to eat if they did not have an appetite, it was also easier to get peace and quiet of the example not slept so well.

“… It’s easier to be unwell if I can stay at home …” (Appelin & Berterö, 2004, p. 67)

Free Research Paper Sample on Outline on pricing strategies for Costcos and Sam’s Club

Compare differences:

The differences are profound between the two, yet conceptually they are very similar. Both “warehouse” concepts sell in bulk fashion. If you’re looking for a small jar of Grey Poupon mustard, forget either of these two warehouse stores. But, if you want two side-by-side 16-ounce jars of Grey Poupon, enough to satisfy a football team, then you have come to the right place.

As similar as these two are, the differences do exist. Costco offers tremendous prices to its customers (club members) and quality. Costco has figured out the consumer will come in with a set list of items to be purchased, only to be enticed to expand that list as they walk the store. Strategically placed “special” items, or Costco employees serving out free samples of delicious food and drink items not normally found on the customer’s list. It’s brilliant marketing: on-site demonstrations and/or sampling of the product. “An impulse purchase” is the expression I have used many, many times as I’ve explained to my wife why I bought this or that.

Costco has a private label brand named Kirkland that has become synonymous with quality and low prices. The simple business model at Costco is to mark up the general products by 13% to 14%, and that’s after they have acquired the product in bulk at a very low price. The private label, Kirkland, carries a similar mark-up of 14% to 15%, just a little higher than general merchandise.

Costco has the most loyal employees because they pay exceptionally well, $13 to $14 per hour, with full benefits. Sure, Costco could cut corners on their labor costs, but they have this funny idea about actually offering customers something unusual — it’s called service. Amazing for a store that big to add the human touch.

Sam’s Club offers similar general items as Costco, but the choices can be limited and the quality, upscale selections are marginal. The environment at Sam’s can be a little disheartening: mediocre lighting, cluttered aisles, and very little in customer service. Sam’s Club will fullfill the “list” as previously mentioned, but Costco enhances the list.

The proof is in the pudding. Costco has beaten Sam’s Club in the critical metric of same-store sales 64 of the past 73 months. The other vital, key component is that 87% of Costco members renew their memberships. The club memberships are tiered from $45 per year to $100 per year. Customer loyalty is fiercely guarded at Costco, and having happy, well-compensated

Costco carries a market capitalization of $24 billion and has a clear opportunity to build the company to a $100 billion market cap. The market size and acceptance will easily allow Costco to double the store base over the next decade. Costco’s consensus estimates for August 31, 2007, fiscal year call for revenues of $65 billion and earnings per share of $2.55. The 2008 numbers are revenues of $73 billion and earnings per share of $2.90 to $2.95.

Sam’s Club numbers are part of the larger Wal-Mart numbers. The market capitalization of Wal-Mart is currently $200 billion and consensus estimates for January 31, 2008 and 2009 call for revenues of $381 billion and $410 billion, and earnings per share of $3.20 and $3.50 respectively.

Clearly, from an investor’s point of view, the better growth story is Costco. From a shopper’s point of view, the more pleasant experience is also at Costco.

Costco has the most loyal employees because they pay exceptionally well, $13 to $14 per hour, with full benefits. Sure, Costco could cut corners on their labor costs, but they have this funny idea about actually offering customers something unusual — it’s called service. Amazing for a store that big to add the human touch.

Sam’s Club offers similar general items as Costco, but the choices can be limited and the quality, upscale selections are marginal. The environment at Sam’s can be a little disheartening: mediocre lighting, cluttered aisles, and very little in customer service. Sam’s Club will fullfill the “list” as previously mentioned, but Costco enhances the list.

Sam’s Club’s basic “advantage” membership is $35 for businesses and $40 for individuals, which also includes a second membership card for a household member. Its “plus” memberships for businesses and individuals is $100  and offers members discounts and earlier opening hours – 7 a.m. Monday through Saturday. The company also offers a collegiate membership for college students for $40, which includes a $15 Sam’s Club gift card.


Some people may be wooed by Costco’s $110 executive membership, which rewards shoppers with a 2 percent return on purchases. Realize you’d need to spend $2,750 there each year to recoup the increased membership cost.

In conclusion, Sam’s Club has a lower score than First Data because it should not be in the business of reselling credit card processing services. Although offering merchant services is a great way for Sam’s Club to make some extra money, there’s isn’t much of a benefit in it for its customers.

Physics Dissertation Topics Selection


Physics dissertation writing is just a method to attain last degree that pupils can have tomake outline extremely cautiously. Numbers of doctoral pupils, still very outstandingly designed ones, get worried when it approaches to their project papers. Lastly, this huge project could make a decision whether or not they are rewarded their last degree.


Certainly, students and their advisor will feel best about the data, and information of theparticular assignment. Following are some stages and tips, however, could help all ofthem out to be successful during this challenging task.


As they identify that physics dissertation writing never be juts their representative project. This assignment can take ample time or might be the year further to research and writing. Because this is feasible the main text of writing they will have completed till present, students might not have sufficient information when it approaches to preparing their valuable time. It is recommended that when they are going to start their physics dissertation papers, the schedule for project. The schedule should allow time for research and writing of other sorts of drafts.


Here are a few essentials that can aid students in all stages of physics dissertation working as well as writing. Students should think the topic critically and consider the subsequent factors;


• Do we have appropriate research question?


• What could we carry out in out research segment?


Physics dissertation working is very important job for completing of higher level of studies. It requires much efforts and enough preparation of its specific sections that need obvious concentration and curiosity. Even with preparation, working on the academic project remains the intimidating task to perform.


• Choose their physics dissertation topic that should be of importance.


• The narrow topic is right to real life issues. Hard theoretical descriptions can only give burden to their project.


• Choose as most recent an issue as feasible and must narrow this down.


• The difficult subject matter could be challenging to deal with, so pick as easy as they can.


Physics dissertation tips:


• In general anxiety builds most important vision of paper working. They mustn’t get worried.


• know the importance of project papers to the achievement of prospect vocation.


• They should make sure that they entirely know the requirements stated by their supervisor and college or university.


• Prepare the plan and the sensible schedule that let them work sequentially as well as in time.


• They should recognize what help them most and they might require and which is the right place to find it.


• Maintain the file and note down their entire ideas as they proceed.


• Create the outline keeping targets in their mind.


The most significant component of finishing the physics dissertation writing procedure successfully is to demonstrate outlines of paper to the advisor at normal breaks so every troubles and deficiencies could be reformed in the appropriate way instead boosting the work burden in the last part of the writing. They can also attain help from the expert online physics dissertation authors.



Literature Review Format Dissertation


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Custom master dissertation help

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Dissertation Format Presentation




The dissertation details are the synopsis of most important points of the dissertation sowed to board members. The level report is consisted on the specifisc structure that is also known as the dissertation format structure. This piece of writing can give details how to plan the report to aid pupils reduce the problems they find in working these papers.


In the starting, students require creating the draft of most important purposes of their investigation in report of dissertation in very direct vivid way. The subsequent stages can be to show a general idea of subject matter mentioning the ignificant things in valuable academic paper work performed by different writers. They must be capable of give details the method of the work they have utilized as citation throughout their personal investigation. There is no single requirement to enlist the information at this point, only the stating the kind of investigation way can be superior.


Another stage can be to file their most important searching paired with their definite points. At this point again they aren’t needed to enlist the information but just the state of most significant statements is needed.


Finally, they are needed to provide the writer’s name and investigators dissertation work of whom they had utilized in their project. This isn’t a tough and quick rule not to mention the specific dissertation work of definite writers but they might perform which if they think this is valuable.


Additional Guiding Principles


• All statements in their dissertation report must begin with fresh subsection.


• They aren’t suggestible to provide any additional information.


• The usage of easy lines could be fairly enough.


• Make use of the proper writing manner for their dissertation report.


• Keep this stick to their mind that just the essential knowledge is needed thus there is no requirement to give details something in depth.



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Master’s Dissertation Conclusion and Introduction


To attain Master’s degree, numbers of pupils must finish their Master’s dissertation writing consisted on exclusive investigation work. This is must say that Master’s dissertation writing is extremely significant procedure which needs finest, relevant information and ample of time. They have numbers of years to finish their technical writing and working but including not the best management and assistance even this phase of precious time might be too little. In this post best working aid can give prospect readers with helpful steps and tips. This is decided to separate into two sections, planning and numerous often made errors part. Master’s dissertation writing focuses on these hints.




Even though they have ample of time for planning their master’s dissertation writing, fix schedules for all parts. This could be best if they created an outstanding timetable where they could make a note of a definite time for all objects they perform. Prior to begin to working their personal Master’s dissertation writing, take view different assignments finished on their own field. Ask their advisor how to evaluate near to their sect matter project earlier protected on the field. This is simplest to work they individual writing while they have a guide of the academic project papers. Keep in mind that they are liberated to inquire any queries, discuss with their professor and talk while he/ she is obtainable to study their outlines. Talk to their advisor not just a subject matter but many different elements for instance, an investigation, different ways, stuffs, elements, tools et cetera. Majority of pupils discuss with their supervisor seldom which makes extra problems and takes additional time in the last part. In addition, this could rather irritate to rephrase a few parts the day earlier the protection if their advisor can find errors in their working. Their supervisor could give details they how to work on the Master’s dissertation writing properly.


The introductory part:


This is extremely disagreeably while their review members inform that such the paper simple section as introductory part is completed awfully. Unluckily this occurs often. Why? In numbers of situations they work on their introductory parts initially and after that do the investigation work and show the outcomes. Precisely due to this way they make blunders. Often throughout the investigation they get definitely different outcomes then they were supposing first and most of the times they even alters the entire logic of project. Unluckily graduate pupils not remember to amend their introductory part in line to latest outcomes and solved problems truly often. So it is finest to work an introductory part after they done the common section.


Summary section:


After project is completed to the point, think on their summary points. Their conclusions must be connected with prior investigation extremely attach and provide an extra description of the outcomes. Majority of candidates fail to keep in mind on the advices they must show connected with prospect investigation consisted on their Master’s dissertation conclusion. Demonstrate their board members because there is an enormous scope for prospect assignments and that their work built anything fresh and truly helpful for sciences.



Writing Dissertation Abstract and Proofreading


The subsequent step by step guiding principles can aid with writing dissertation abstract (or synopsis). All stage draft a necessary section of the abstract which must be comprised. Additionally, the components are given in line students must show in the finished task.


Main objectives: The major objectives of dissertation abstract are to sum up in the organized and set method the context of their dissertation papers. This section provides as a concise part for whole paper, representing whether or not this could be valuable to interpret. Keep these objectives in their mind while outlining their personal dissertation abstract.


Length: in general the abstract for the dissertation must not go beyond single page of content, but this is necessary to make sure sectional requirements to be certain that their task matches with specifications. More than mentioned length is extremely grave failure that can specify the deficiency of interpretation regarding the main objectives of the dissertation abstract writing.


Avoid long windedness: This is a big demand in working on the dissertation abstract is to keep concentration and not go above the word limit. This is therefore essential at this point to shun needlessly florid words. Write this simple, understandable and within requirements.


Deepness: The dissertation abstract writing should symbolize the whole academic project, not only definite components of this. Purposes, analyzed literature, method, analysis and summary sentences: entire must be summed up in this section. Keep in mind that it is made use to tell proposed readers of what readers are ready to study, so never make numerous chocking points.


Terms: The addition of most important conditions, both common and definite to their topic field, can give the sense for looking the students to recognize the nature and main aim of their project all together.


Ability: fix a voice for their assigned project by developing the solid educational tone in the early times in their dissertation abstract. Show their easiness with an educational journal to put an impression that their writing is specialized and convincing.


The quite insensitive method is to consider the main objectives of their dissertation abstract, maybe, but helpful however. Pupils will study and interpret their abstract to make a decision whether their paper entirely is about to be helpful or not to all of them. Specify the importance of their investigation and highlight the severity of their ways.


Stability: In similar methods that an academic paper as whole should keep appropriate part of gaps between other sections, so many dissertations abstract must reflect this stability. Observe the scoring criterion to notice which factors take how many scores, and manage their task suitably.


Simplicity of language: As previously stated, dissertation abstract needs the short writing format to maintain the word limit short. In summing up an immense quantity of stuff, be aware also of risk of vagueness. Ensure this section isn’t all inconceivable to the smart pupils.


See available stuff: As with numbers of factors of working on the dissertation papers, helpful manuals and guides could be established in equivalent available stuff.



Free Dissertation Samples


Masters dissertation examples are one of the important tasks which has to be completed according to advisor’s requirements. Here are some points that can be helpful to write this task.


Check somebody else’s free dissertation samples. A very true tripping block is that you don’t have a picture in your head of what completed given task must look. How have different proposals been managed? Could you form your masters dissertation examples after other ones that you have observed? If you never willingly find this or two to observe, talk with your supervisor to notice some. Opportunities are your supervisor has a folder case covered with them.


Ensure about masters dissertation examples have a detailed evaluation of text comprised of. Now thought, an initial thought, might not look to make logic. The basis at the back of the review of the literature depends of a statement with two sentences of study: 1) this investigation is required, and 2) the investigation method you have selected is most suitable for research question which is being inquired. You have got to perform this little point so you also may make a start this and perform this now. In addition, you can possibly desire to include reviewing of literature while they are working last dissertation papers.


With set accessibility of reproducing tools students must be capable of avoiding numerous adversities which prior dissertation investigators had to tackle in building their review of literature. While they interpret anything which is significant to their course, copy the pertinent piece of writing or chapter. Maintain their copies managed according to classes and chapters. In addition, most significantly, copy the bibliographical citation in order that they could simply reference stuff in their bibliography section.



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